Katharine Tynan (1861-1931)


Life
[Katharine Hinkson, or Hinkson-Tynan or Tynan Hinkson; recte Katharine, freq. Katherine;] poet and novelist; b. 21 Jan. [vars. 23 Jan.; 1 Feb.], at Whitehall dairy farm, Clondalkin, Co. Dublin; one of 12 children of Andrew Cullen Tynan and Elizabeth Reilly Tynan; a sister Mary died in childhood, 1868; another, Norah (1865-1932; m. John O’Mahony); ed. at Dominican Convent of St Catherine of Siena, Drogheda for 6 years, to 14; suffered chronic eye ulcers in childhood; devoutly religious and considered the Catholic novitiate for nuns; first poem publ. in Graphic, 1878; mbr. of Ladies’ Land League, with Anna Parnell, Mrs A. M. Sullivan, et al.; early friendship with Dora Sigerson, Frances Wynne, and Sarah Atkinson; contrib. poems to Irish Monthly from 1880; acted as her father’s companion whom she followed in supporting Parnell after the Split; contrib. to Hibernia (Feb. 1883); Dublin University Review (Aug. 1885);
 
issued Louise de la Vallière and Other Poems (1885), her first book, financed by her father and an immediate success, resulting in a 2nd edition; heavily influenced by Christina Rossetti and later called ‘too full of English influence to be quite Irish’ by Yeats in a review of Ballads and Lyrics (Evening Herald, Jan. 1892), first met W. B. Yeats (‘all dreams and gentleness’), June 1885, in connection with C. H. Oldham’s Dublin University Review; advised by him in an early letter to make a speciality of her Irish Catholicism; encouraged by John O’Leary, she published a second volume, Shamrocks (1887), with exclusively Irish subject-matter; contrib. ‘Irish Authors and Poets’ to Irish Fireside [new ser.], No. 1 (1887, pp.8-9, and pp.24-25); praised by Yeats on the grounds that ‘in finding her nationality, she has also found herself’ (Prose, 120); lightly throws off marriage-proposal from W. B. Yeats (“For heaven’s sake, you go to the devil!”), Dec. 1890?
 
her suggestion to Yeats that he should try an Irish subject resulted in Wanderings of Oisin; idolised Parnell and supported him after his downfall; lived in Ireland till her marriage to Henry Albert Hinkson, a barrister and novelist and contemporary of Yeats in Erasmus Smith High School whom she converted to Catholicism, moving to London on marriage, 1893 [at Ealing and Notting Hill]; Hinkson later became a Mayo Magistrate from 1914; she had five pregnancies and three living children, of whom only Pamela, survived beyond childhood; widowed when her husband, a heavy drinker, died in 1919; afterwards travelled with her dg. Pamela [Hinkson, q.v.]; revised The Cabinet of Irish Literature, formerly compiled by Charles Read (4 vols. 1879), likewise in 4 vols. (1902-03), adding a predominantly women’s volume and eliminating some non-literary writings from Charles Read’s selection;
 

contrib. poems to Studies, 1913-22; also in Irish Review, Aug. 1913; issued several volumes of poems supporting Redmond’s Volunteers in WWI, notably Flower of Youth (1915) - the title poem of which was widely circulated - and The Holy War (1916) and reacted strongly against the 1916 Rising; published over 100 novels [var. 105 novels and 12 story collections] of social protest and poetry collections, and five vols. of autobiography valuable for her recollections of the Parnells and figures of the literary revival - incl. Twenty-Five Years (1913); The Middle Years (1916); The Years of Shadow (1919), and The Wandering Years (1922), and Memories (1924); Yeats, a life-long correspondent, described her as ‘very plain’ but was always affectionate towards her;

 
she sold Yeats’s letters to John Quinn for £100 in 1920 (‘My life is in my poems’, 16 Sept. 1888), several dozen of which later appeared with Yeats’s early letters without permission or opportunity to correct; though severely myopic all her life, Tynan produced 100 novels, 12 collections of short stories, 3 plays and anthologies, all commenced after her husband’s death, as well as innumerable articles on social questions such as poor children and women’s working conditions; considered unique among Irish writers in her devotion to Catholicism and women’s rights; d. 2 April 1931; a bespectacled portrait of her in oil by John Butler Yeats (1887) is held in the Municipal Gallery, Dublin; she wrote “The Wind That Shakes the Barley”, latterly the title of a film on the Anglo-Irish war directed by Ken Loach with Cillian Murphy in the leading role (2006). ODNB JMC PI DBIV IF NCBE DIW DIB DIH DIL OCEL KUN FDA KUN SUTH OCIL

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Works
Poetry
  • Louise de la Vallière and Other Poems (London: Kegan Paul & Co. 1885) [incl. ‘Thoreau at Walden’]; Do. [another edn.] (1886).
  • Shamrocks (London: Kegan Paul & Co. 1887).
  • Ballads and Lyrics (London: Kegan Paul & Co . 1891).
  • Cuckoo Song[s] (London: Elkin Mathews and John Lane 1894).
  • The Wind in the Trees: A Book of Country Verse (London: Grant Richards 1898).
  • Poems (London: Lawrence & Bullen 1910).
  • A Little Book of Twenty-four Carols (Portland, Maine: Thomas B Mosher 1907).
  • Twenty-one Poems of Katharine Tynan, sel. by W. B. Yeats (Dundrum: Dun Emer Press 1907).
  • New Poems (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1911).
  • Irish Poems (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1912) [var 1913], Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros. 1914).
  • The Rhymed Life of St. Patrick (London: Burns & Oates 1907), ills. [by Lindsay Symington], 32pp. [large folio].
  • Flower of Youth: Poems in War Time (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1915), 80pp.
  • The Holy War: Poems (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1916), 71pp.
  • Late Songs (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1917).
  • Evensong (Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1922).
  • Twilight Songs (Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1927).
  • Collected Poems (London: Macmillan 1930), foreword by “Æ” [George Russell].
  • Poems of Katherine [sic] Tynan, ed. Monk Gibbon (Dublin: Allen Figgis 1963).
Poetry (Collected editions)
Fiction
  • The Land I Love Best (London: Unwin Bros 1890); Do. (London: CTS 1899), and Do. [another edn.] (London: Gresham Press/Unwin Bros. 1899).
  • A Nun, Her Friends, and Her Order (London: Kegan Paul & Co 1891), biog. of Mother Mary Xavier Fallon.
  • A Cluster of Nuts, Being Sketches among My Own People (London: Lawrence & Bullen 1894), Do. [another edn.] (1895).
  • An Isle in the Water (London: A. & C. Black 1895), Do. Do. [another edn.] (1896), Do. [another edn.] (London: Adam & Charles Black 1904).
  • Miracle Plays - Our Lord’s Coming and Childhood (London: John Lane 1895).
  • The Way of A Maid (London: Lawrence & Bullen 1895).
  • The Land of Mist and Mountain (London: Unwin Bros. [1895]), and Do. as A [sic] Land of Mist and Mountain (London: CTS 1895).
  • A Lover’s Breast Knot (London: E Mathews 1896).
  • Oh, What a Plague is Love (London: A & C Black 1896), and Do. Do. [another edn.] [Sixpenny Edition] (London: A. & C. Black, 1904).
  • The Handsome Brandons: A Story for Girls (London: Blackie & Son 1899).
  • The Dear Irish Girl (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1899).
  • Led by a Dream (London: CTS 1899).
  • The Queen’s Page (London: Lawrence & Bullen 1899), Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros. 1900).
  • She Walks in Beauty (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1899).
  • A Daughter of Kings [sic] (London: Smith, Elder & Co 1900), other edns., [NY: Benziger 1905, London: Eveleigh Nash 1905), and Do. [another edn.] (London: Hodder & Stoughton [1910)].
  • A Daughter of the Fields (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1900), Do. [another edn.] (London: Hodder & Stoughton [1910]).
  • The Adventures of Carlo (London: Blackie & Son [1900]), Do. [another edn.], [Pinnacle Library Series] (London & Glasgow: Blackie & Son 1932).
  • Three Fair Maids; or, The Burkes of Barrymore (London: Blackie & Son 1901), Do. [another edn.] (1909).
  • That Sweet Enemy (London: Archibald Constable 1901), Do. [another edn.] (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 1901), Do. [another edn.] [Constable Sixpenny Series] (London: Constable [1908]).
  • The Great Captain (London: Constable [1901]), Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros. 1902).
  • The Golden Lily (London: Constable [1901]), Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros 1902).
  • A Union of Hearts (London: J. Nisbet & Co. [1901]).
  • A Girl of Galway (London: Blackie & Son 1902), Do. [another edn.] [1914].
  • The Handsome Quaker (London: A. H. Bullen 1902).
  • A King’s Woman (London: Hurst & Blackett 1902).
  • Love of Sisters (London: Smith, Elder 1902).
  • A Red, Red Rose (London: Eveleigh Nash 1903), Do. [another edn.] (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1931).
  • The Honourable Molly (London: Smith, Elder 1903), Do. [another edn.] [Newnes Sixpenny Novels] (1907).
  • Julia (London: Smith, Elder 1904), Do. [another edn.] (1905), Do. [another edn.] [Sixpenny Novel Ser., No. 103 (London: Daily Mail [1910]).
  • Judy’s Lovers (London: FV White & Co.1904).
  • Fortune’s Favourite (London: White & Co. 1905).
  • Luck of the Fairfaxes, A Story for Girls (London: Collins’s Clear-Type Press [1905]), 397pp., 7 b/w ills..
  • Innocencies (London: A. H. Bullen/Dublin: Maunsel & Co. 1905), Do. [another edn.] (Chicago: A. C. McClurg 1905).
  • Dick Pentreath (London: Smith, Elder 1905).
  • For the White Rose (London: Constable 1905), Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros. 1905).
  • The Adventures of Alicia (London: FV White 1906).
  • The Story of Bawn (London: Smith, Elder 1906), Do. [another edn.] (Chicago: A. C. McClurg 1907).
  • For Maisie, a Love Story (London: Hodder & Stoughton 1906).
  • The Yellow Domino and Other Stories (London: F. V. White & Son 1906).
  • A Little Book for Mary Gill’s Friends (Petersfield: Pear Tree Press 1906).
  • A Little Courtesier (London: JM Dent & co. [1906]).
  • Her Ladyship (London: Smith, Elder 1907).
  • The Story of Our Lord for Children (Dublin: Sealy, Bryers & Co. 1907), Do. [another edn.], col. ills. (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne 1923).
  • Peggy, the Daughter (London: Cassell & Co. 1907), Do. [another edn.] [Cassell’s Sixpenny Novel Series] (London: Cassell & Co. 1912).
  • Experience, poems (London: A. H. Bullen 1908).
  • Men and Maids, or the Lovers’ Way (Dublin: Sealy, Bryers 1908).
  • Father Mathew [The Saint Nicholas Series] (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne 1908).
  • The Lost Angel (London: John Milne 1908), Do. [another edn.] (Phil: JB Lippincott 1908).
  • Mary Grey (London: Cassell 1908), other edns. (1909, 1911).
  • Love of Sisters (London: Smith, Elder 1908).
  • The House of the Crickets (London: Smith, Elder 1908).
  • The Book of Flowers, with Frances Maitland (London: Smith & Elder 1909).
  • Lauds (London: Enfield 1909).
  • Kitty Aubrey (London: James Nisbet & co. 1909).
  • Her Mother’s Daughter (London: Smith, elder, and Co. 1909), Do. [another edn.] (London: Murray [n.d.]).
  • Peggy the Daughter (London: Cassell 1909).
  • Cousins and Others (London: TW Laurie 1909).
  • The House of the Secret (London: James Clarke & Co. 1910).
  • Betty Carew (London: Smith, Elder & Co.1910).
  • Freda (London & NY: Cassell & Co 1910).
  • The Story of Cecilia (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1911), Do. [another edn.] (NY: Benziger Bros. 1911).
  • The Story of Clarice (London: James Clarke & co. 1911).
  • Paradise Farm (NY: Duffield 1911).
  • Princess Katherine [sic] (NY: Duffield 1911), Do. [another edn.] (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1912).
  • Rose of the Garden (London: Constable 1912), Do. [another edn.] (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill 1913).
  • Heart o’ Gold, or The Little Princess (London: SW Partridge & Co. [1912]).
  • The Unbeliever, a Romance of Lourdes (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne 1912).
  • Honey, My Honey (London: Sith, elder & Co. 1912).
  • A Midsummer Rose (London: Smith, Elder 1913), 312pp..
  • A Mesalliance (NY: Duffield 1913).
  • Miss Pratt of Paradise Farm (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1913).
  • John Bulteel’s Daughters ((London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1914).
  • Molly, My Heart’s Delight (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1914).
  • The Daughter of the Manor (London: Blackie & Son 1914).
  • The Flower of Peace: Devotional Poetry (London: Burns & Oates 1914) [vellum de luxe], and Do. [another edn.] (NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons 1915).
  • A Shameful Inheritance (London: Cassell & Co. 1914).
  • A Little Radiant Girl (London: Blackie & Son 1914, [1937]).
  • Lovers’ Meeting (London: T. W. Laurie 1914), Do. [another edn.] (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1932), (iv), 5-320pp.
  • Men, Not Angels, and Other Tales Told to Girls (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne 1914).
  • The Squire’s Sweetheart (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1913).
  • Countrymen All, Tales (Dublin & London: Maunsel & Co. 1915).
  • The House of the Foxes (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1915).
  • The Curse of Castle Eagle (NY: Duffield 1915).
  • Since First I Saw Your Face’ (London: Hutchinson & Co. 1915).
  • Margery Dawe (London & Glasgow: Blackie & Son 1916, rep. [1934]).
  • The Web of Fraulein (London: Hodder & Stoughton 1916).
  • John-a-Dreams (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1916).
  • The West Wind (London: Constable 1916).
  • The Rattle-snake (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1917).
  • Kit (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1917), 352pp.
  • Miss Mary (London: John Murray 1917).
  • Herb o ’Grace, Poems in War-time (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1918).
  • My Love’s But a Lassie (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1918, 1932).
  • Miss Gascoigne (London: John Murray 1918).
  • Love of Brothers (London: Constable & Co. 1919).
  • The Man from Australia (London: W. Collins & Sons 1919), Do. [another edn.] [Novel Library Series (London: London Book Co. [1913]).
  • Denys the Dreamer (London: W. Collins & Sons 1920), later eds. (NY: Benziger Bros 1921.
  • London: Collins 1930).
  • The House (London: W. Collins & Sons 1920).
  • Bitha’s Wonderful Year (London: Humphrey Milford [1921]).
  • The Second Wife [with] A July Rose (London: John Murray 1921).
  • Sally Victrix (London: Collins 1921).
  • A Mad Marriage (London: Collins 1922).
  • White Ladies (London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson 1922).
  • The House on the Bogs (London: Constable & Co./NY: Houghton-Mifflin 1922).
  • Pat, the Adventurer (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1923).
  • They Loved Greatly (London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson 1923).
  • Mary Beaudesurt, V.S. ((London: W. Collins & Son 1923).
  • The Golden Rose (London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson 1924).
  • Wives (London: Hurst & Blackett [1924]).
  • The House of Doom (London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson 1924).
  • Dear Bountiful Lady (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1925).
  • Life in the Occupied Area (London: Hutchinson & Co. 1925).
  • Miss Phibbs (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1925).
  • The Moated Grange (London: W. Collins & Sons 1926), reiss. as The Night of Terror (London: W. Collins & Sons [1923]).
  • The Infatuation of Peter (London: W. Collins & Sons 1926).
  • The Heiress of Wyke (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1926).
  • The Briar Bush Maid (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1926).
  • A Dog Book (London: Hutchinson & Co. [1926]).
  • The Face in the Picture (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1927).
  • Haroun of London (London: W. Collins & Sons 1927).
  • The Wild Adventure (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1927).
  • The Respectable Lady (London: Cassell & Co. 1927), Do. [another edn.] (London: Collins [n.d.]).
  • Castle Perilous (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1928), Do. [another edn.] (1929).
  • The House in the Forest (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1928).
  • Lover of Women (London: W. Collins & Sons 1928).
  • A Fine Gentleman (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1929).
  • The Most Charming Family (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1929).
  • The Rich Man (London: W. Collins & Sons 1929), Do. [another edn.] (1930).
  • The River (London: W. Collins & Sons 1929), Do. [another edn.] [Novel Library] [1934].
  • The Admirable Simmons (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1930).
  • Grayson’s Girl (London: W. Collins & Sons 1930), Do. [another edn.] (London: Mellifont Pres [1952]).
  • The Playground (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1930).
  • Philippa’s Lover (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1931).
  • Delia’s Orchard (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1931).
  • A Lonely Maid (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1931).
  • The Forbidden Way (London: W. Collins & Sons 1931).
  • The Other Man (London: Ward, Lock & Co. 1932).
  • The Pitiful Lady (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1932).
  • An International Marriage (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1933).
  • Connor’s Wood (London: W. Collins & Sons 1933).
  • The House of Dreams (London & Melbourne: Ward, Lock & Co. 1934).
  • A Lad Was Born (London: W. Collins & Sons 1934), Do. [abridged edn.] (London: Mellifont P. [1945]).
Collected fiction
  • Peter van de Kamp, ed., Katharine Tynan: Irish Stories, 1893-1900 (Univ. of Leiden Press 1993) [incl. “A Martyr Indeed”; “How Mary Came Home”].
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Autobiography
  • Twenty-five Years: Reminiscences (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1913), viii. 355pp. [with port.].
  • The Middle Years: A Memoir (London: Constable 1916).
  • The Years of the Shadow (London: Constable & Co.; NY: Houghton-Mifflin 1919), viii, 343pp.
  • The Wandering Years, a memoir (London: Constable & Co./NY: Houghton-Mifflin 1922).
  • Memories (London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson 1924).
Anthologies
  • ed., Love Songs of Ireland [Cameo Series] (London: T. F.isher Unwin 1892), 8o. [uniform with W. B. Yeats, The Countess Kathleen].
  • ed., The Wild Harp: A Selection from Irish Poetry (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1913), ills. C. M. Watts [see details].
  • ed., The Cabinet of Irish Literature, in succession to Charles A. Read [revision of his edn.], 4 vols. (London: Gresham Publishing Co. 1902-1903), [see details].
  • ed. [comp.], The Child at Prayer, A Book of Devotion for the Young (London: Burns, Oates & Co. 1923).
  • The Augustan Books of Irish Poetry, Katharine Tynan (London: Ernest Benn [1931]), intro. by Pamela Hinkson [dg.; cf. Dora Sigerson Shorter].
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Miscellaneous
  • A Book of Memory: The Birthday Book of the Blessed Dead (London: Hodder & Stoughton [1906]); Do. [another edn.] (1907); Do., rep. as A Little Book for John O’Mahony’s Friends (Petersfield: Pear Tree Books P. 1906), and Do. [another edn.] (Portland, Maine: Thomas B. Mosher 1909), with memoir of her sister’s husband by Katharine Tynan.
  • Lord Edward: A Study in Romance (London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1916).
  • Ireland [Peeps at Ireland - in Peeps at Many Lands Series] (London: A. & C. Black 1907, 1927) [see extract].
  • Frances Wynne: ‘A Memory, in Wynne’, Whisper! [Vigo Cabinet Series. No. 35] (1908), 8º .
  • Elsie E. Morton, ed., Maxims from the Writing [sic] of Katharine Tynan [The Angelus Series] [1934].

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Bibliographical details
The Wild Harp: A Selection from Irish Lyrical Poetry
, printed at the Ballantyne Press, London; with decorations by C M Watts (London: Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd. MCMXIII), ded. ‘To Lady Glenconnor for Traveller’s Joy’; Pref. ix-xv; poems by J. C. Mangan, George Fox, Samuel Ferguson; George Ogle; G. N. Reyonds; J. J. Callanan; Thomas Moore; Douglas Hyde; George Darley; Nora Chesson; Edward Walsh; George Sigerson; T. D’Arcy Magee [sic]; W. B. Yeats; A. G. Geoghegan; Dion Boucicault; Martin MacDermott; A. P. Graves; Stephen L. Gwynn; Dr. Anster; Joseph Campbell; Allingham; “AE“”; Alice Milligan; Moira O’Neill; William Dara [pseud.]; James Stephens; Aubrey de Vere; Eva Gore Booth; Padraic Colum; Emily Lawless; Herbert Trench; Henry de Vere Stacpoole; Dora Sigerson; Seumas O’Sullivan; John Todhunter; Nancy Campbell; Winifred M. Letts; James Joyce [‘I Hear an Army’].

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The Cabinet of Irish Literature / Selections from the Works of / the Chief Poets, Orators, and Prose Writers / of Ireland / with biographical sketches and literary notices by / Charles A. Read, FRHS / Author of Tales and stories of Irish life; Stories from the Ancient Classics, &c. / New Edition / revised and greatly Extended by / Katharine Tynan Hinkson [formerly Katharine Tynan], / author of Poems, The Dear Irish Girl, She Walks in Beauty, A Girl of Galway, &c. / Vol. IV / London / The Gresham Publishing Company / 34 Southhampton Street, Strand / 1903 [vols. I-IV, 1902-1903; other imp. 1905, 1906, 1908], ills. [ports.], 8°. [See further details of the earlier edition under Charles Read, supra.]

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Criticism
  • W. B. Yeats, review of Shamrocks, in Irish Fireside (9 July 1889) [rep. in John Frayne, ed., Uncoll. Prose of W. B. Yeats, Vol. 1 (Macmillan 1970), p.119-22]; Ernest Boyd, in Ireland’s Literary Renaissance (Knopf 1916);
  • Russell K. Alspach, ‘The Poetry of Katharine Tynan Hinkson’, in The Ireland America Review, 4 (1940), pp.121-26;
  • Marilyn Gaddis Rose, Katharine Tynan (Lewisburg: Bucknell UP 1974) [var. 1973];
  • Roger McHugh, ed., Letters [of W. B. Yeats] to Katharine Tynan (Dublin: Clonmore & Reynolds; NY: McMullen 1953).
  • 305pp.
  • Donna L. Potts, ‘’Irish poetry and the modernist canon: a reappraisal of Katharine Tynan’, in Border Crossings: Irish Women Writers and National Identities, ed. Kathryn Kirkpatrick (Dublin: Wolfhound Press; Alabama UP 2000) Chap. 4].
  • Colette Epplé, ‘“Wild Irish with a vengeance”: definitions of Irishness in Katharine Tynan’s children’s literature’, in Divided Worlds: Studies in Children’s Literature, ed. Mary Shine Thompson & Valerie Coghlan [Irish Society for the Study of Children’s Literature, 3] (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2007) [q.pp.]
Also J. W. Foster, Irish Novels 1890-1940: New Bearings in Culture and Fiction (Oxford: OUP 2008) [see extract].

See also Irish Book Lover Vols. 4, 8, 9, 11, 13.

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Commentary
Lionel Johnson (‘Poetry and Patriotism’): ‘I have heard it said that the four volumes of Mrs Hinkson show a steady increase in artistic power, but a noticeable decrease in the true Irish spirit of poetry, an extremely doubtful compliment to the true Irish spirit. ... What the critic meant was that in Mrs Hinkson’s earlier work there were a greater fluency and flow of sentiment, less restraint and careful finish, more obvious rhetoric and impulsiveness. The dainty delicacy of the later work, its mastery of rhythm and curbing of haste, were most upon him, the idea that all art implies discipline and austerity of taste, a constant progress toward an ideal perfection, though his earliest ancestors knew it well, seemed strange to him.’ (Rep. in Mark Story, Poetry and Ireland since 1800, A Source Book (1988), pp.93-106; p. 99.

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W. B. Yeats (1) “List of 30 best Irish Books” (Dublin Daily Express, 27 Feb. 1895), writes that in her Ballads and Lyrics Mrs Hinkson has given ‘a distinguished expression to much that is most characteristic in Irish Catholicism’ (Letters, ed., Wade, pp.246-51; p.250); that Yeats also referred to her generously in his essay ‘Irish National Literature, III’ (Bookman, Sept. 1895), where he says, ‘No living Irish poet has learned so much from the translators as Mrs Hinkson, and the great change this knowledge has made in her verse is an example of the necessity for Irish writers to study the native tradition’; he continues with an account of her development, and ends with assurance that her best will appear in the forthcoming Miracle Plays [1895], and avers that ‘her best inspiration has ever come from Catholic belief, and to give an excellent expression to the ancient symbols is to be for a delight and a comfort to many ardent and dutiful spirits.’ (John Frayne, ed., Uncollected Prose, Vol. I, 1970, pp.378-79).

Ghosts of London: Yeats wrote to Tynan: ‘This melancholy London - I sometimes imagine that the souls of the lost are compelled to walk through its streets perpetually. One feels them passing life a whiff of air.’ (25 Aug. 1888.)

W. B. Yeats (2), “Autobiography”, in Memoir, ed. Denis Donoghue (London: Macmillan 1972): ‘I wrote many letters to Katharine Tynan, a very plain woman, and one day I overheard somebody say that she was the kind of woman who might make herself very unhappy about a man. I began to wonder if she was in love with me and if it was my duty to marry her. Sometimes when she was in Ireland, I in London would think it possible that I should, but if she came to stay, or I saw her in Ireland, it became impossible again. Yet we were always very great friends and I have no reason to think she every thought of me otherwise.’ (p.32.)

W. B. Yeats (3): Yeats gives an impression of Katharine Tynan’s father in “Knight of the Sheep”, [a story] in The Celtic Twilight (1893) [see also Peter Ure, Yeats, 10963, p.28].

There is an account of a proposal of marriage made by Yeats to Tynan - ‘would it not be a most lovely and suitable thing for two great poets to be united’ - which Tynan shrugs it off with ‘For heaven’s sake, you go to the devil!’, as recounted by her sister. (See R. F Foster, Life of W. B. Yeats, Vol. I, OUP 1997, p.72.)

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W. P. Ryan, The Irish Literary Revival (1894), Miss Katharine Tynan won speedy fame with poetry which showed a welcome new personality had strayed to Irish fields, though neither the spirit nore the form of the work was Celtic as we have understood it [9]. Further, Katharine Tynan, Mrs. Hinkson, Louise de la Valiere, Shamrocks, and later works; ‘her power is unquestioned, her nature is Irish, but her art and standpoint are sometimes English, strange to say. This is even evident in her Gaelic excursions ... Some of her religious poetry expresses the calm and the fervour of Irish faith. [117]

The Irish Book Lover (1917) —
Lord Edward: A Study in Romance, by Katharine Tynan (Smith, Elder) - notice in The Irish Book Lover,, Vol. VIII, Nos. 9 & 10 (April & May 1917), 112 [“Notice of New Books”].

Readers of Mrs. Hinkson’s autobiographical writings need not be to be told of the love and veneration in which she holds Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the rebel chieftain of ’98, and his descendants, even to the fifth generation. For the materials of this present volume she selected telling passages from family memoirs and biographies. With entire sympathy, exquisite skill and cunning workmanship, she has deftly woven them into a continuous and thrilling narrative, supplying where necessary connecting links. It was a happy thought incited her to do so. For in the telling she brings out all that was best in that most remarkable family, of which “Eddy” was the merriest member. But was it wise to revive the long dead rumour that his step-father Ogilvie acted as his betrayer? Even Sam Neilson, true as steel, was at one time so accused, as well as others, until the researches of Dr. Madden and W. J. Fitzpatrick revealed the real traitor.

Rep. in Bruce Stewart, ed., The Irish Book Lover: An Irish-studies Reader [Princess Grace Irish Library Series] (Gerrards Cross 2004), p.119-20 [sharing a review with Joyce’s Dubliners].

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Dominic Daly, The Young Douglas Hyde (1974), writes: Katherine [sic] Tynan lived at fine farmhous at Clondalkin, south of Dublin; m. Henry Hinskon, TCD grad. Yeats writes of her in The Bookman, Sept. 1894, reviewing Cuckoo Songs, her fourth book of verse: ‘No living poet has learned so much from the translators as Mrs Hinkson, and the great change this knowledge has made on her verse is an example of the necessity for Irish writers to study the native tradition of expression. Her first two books, Louis de Valliere [1885] and Shamrocks [1887], contained here and there a moving lyric, but were on the whole merely excellent in promise ... The work of the Irish folklorists, and the translations of Dr Hyde and of an earlier poet, the village schoolmaster Edward Walsh, began to affect her, however, soon afterthe publication of Shamrocks; and the best of Ballads and Lyrics and Cuckoo Songs have the freedom from rhetoric, the simplicity and tenderness, though not the passion, of the Gaelic poets’ [85] (Cont.)

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Dominic Daly (The Young Douglas Hyde, 1974) - cont.: In a diary entry of 23 Jan 1887, Hyde notes walking four miles to the Tynan farm - four sisters, a brother and her father - ‘they all have a frightful brogue. Her father is a farmer with three hundred acres.’ On the following day he meets them in College, and shows them around, ‘and all the time I was terribly embarrassed lest anyone should see me talking to them. Katherine was alright but her sister was a sight. I gave them tea, cakes and sweets, etc., and Yeates [sic] came in at the same time.’ Tynan has an account of the visit: ‘there was a day when we had tea with Douglas Hyde in Trinity College. Perhaps Craoibhin Aoibhin ... was at his least inspiring within the walls of his Alma Mater, which was no more motherly to the future lighter of the Gaelic torch in Ireland than she had been to any other of her great sons. I recall the event without any glow of pleasure. It seems to be been a somewhat conventional entertainment, which was not the case with anything in which Douglas Hyde took a hand.’ (Twenty-five Years, London 1913, p.207.)

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Patricia Boylan, All Cultivated People (Gerrards Cross 1988), contains numerous references [10, 14, 15, 57-60, 62, 67, 68, 69, 76, 78, 91, 92, 94, 99, 105, 109, 111, 112, 149, 219, 262, ed. Encyclopaedic Cabinet of Irish Literature [sic], 58; Flower of Youth, 91-92; Five Years Reminiscences, 67, 76; The Years of Shadow, 62, 105; also remarks about her husband]. Her poems, “Flower of Youth”, expeditiously written and published in October; the title poem extraordinarily popular; copies sold to aid Red Cross; a thousand distributed to bereaved mothers in a South of England town, and the Bishop of London used it several times in sermons; to assuage the guilt / grief of mothers who had given their sons to the war was so urgent a duty that the Bishop may not have noticed the peculiar role given to God, ‘Lest Heaven be thronged with greybeards hoary. / God who made boys for His delight / Stoops in a day of grief and glory / And calls them in, in from the night. / When they come trooping from the war / Our skies have many a new young star ... Dear boys! they shall be young forever. / The son of God was once a boy. / They run and leap by a clear river / And of their mirth they have great joy. / God who made boys so clean and good / Smiles with the eyes of fatherhood.’ [91-2]. Further, ‘she refused to risk George Moore when her publishers asked her to revise the four vols. of Encyclopaedic Cabinet of Irish Literature, bringing it up to date with another volume, and then compressing into four. When the publishers insisted ... she chose an excerpt from a play, judging the realistic novels Esther Waters and Sister Teresa ‘unsuitable to the Irish households which would purchase the monumental work’. But she had the courage of her convictions and ... bann[ed] a novelist because of ‘his incivility to Parnell in his last days’ [58].

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Katie O’Donovan, reviewing Voices on the Wind, Women Poets of the Celtic Twilight (New Island Books 1995), 144pp. in Irish Times [c.10.9.1995), remarks on ‘ground-breaking poems on motherhood’ and evocative descriptions of natural and rural scenes, combining in ‘The Little Hill’, where the beloved landscape is seen as symbol of the maternal breast; also notes ‘All in the April Evening’, and ‘High Summer’, set in idylic natural scene against backdrop of dying men in Flanders; cites also ‘Any Woman’.

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John Devitt, reviewing Irish Stories 1893-1800, ed. Peter van de Kamp (Univ. of Leiden Press 1993) [incl. “A Maryr Indeed”; “How Mary Came Home”], in Irish Literary Supplement [Boston] (Spring 1994), remarks that the stories are marred by stylistic garrulity and uncertainty of technique; incls. themes of rural eccentricity, idiocy, madness anticipate Corkery more than Moore; includes venomous studies of female characters; revival of interest unlikely.

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Henry Merritt, ‘“Willie Liar”: Yeats, A Novel, Love Poems and Three Women’, in Irish Studies Review (Winter 1994/95), pp.19-23, considers the poet’s ‘persistent deviousness’ in relation to women, focusing on his relations to Katharine Tynan, and especially the meaning of his pseud. “Ganconagh” in John Sherman, meaning ‘one who talks of love’ and plainly addressed to her; Yeat regularly kept her supplied with page proofs of Wanderings of Oisin as it came out.

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Rolf & Magda Loeber, A Guide to Irish Fiction, 1650-1900 (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2006) - Introduction [discussing clerical attitudes towards fiction]: ‘[...] When the novelist Katharine Tynan finished her education at the Siena Dominican Convent in Drogheda, she had to sign the convent pledge that she would not dance “fast dances”, go the theatre, or read novels. In her autobiography, she wryly remarks that the pledge did not say anything about the writing of novels.’ (Tynan, Twenty-five Years: Reminiscences, New York, 1913, pp.54-55, 69; Loebers, op. cit., p.lxvi.)

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J. W. Foster, Irish Novels 1890-1940: New Bearings in Culture and Fiction (Oxford UP 2008), notes that Tynan calculates precisely the train-and-boat timetable from London to Ireland (‘The Irish Mail leaves London every evening at eight forty-five and covers the distance to Holyhead in some six hours’ - A Cluster of Nuts, Being a Sketch of my Own People, Nisbet 1914, p.219) - and reflects on the author’s ‘author’s class identification with the English passengers [in the train] and her class revulsion, followed by an apparent gender offendedness and then anti-Irishness, when two bilingual Irish (male) seasonal farm-workers returning to Galway from England invade the carriage’ (pp.9-10). Further: ‘We would nowadays be tempted to recognise Tynan's anti-Irishness as a form of self-dislike [...] However, it is likely that the deeper ensuing emotions are wounded Irish pride and then guilt at her intolerance, followed by an unsuccessful attempt to redeem herself through benign thoughts and actions. They are a surprisingly complex few pages fittingly set in the conveniently compact and telling capsule of the Irish male train and testify, certainly from the Irish side, to the intricacy of Anglo-Irish relations cross-hatched by class, gender, languge, culture, and race.’ (Foster, op. cit., pp.10.) Note: Tynan is extensively considered in Foster’s study, which touches on such titles as The Cabinet of Irish Literature, A Cluster of Nuts, Cousins and Others, Dick Pentreath, The Middle Years, The Wandering Years, and The Years of Shadow but most extensively on A Girl of Galway (at pp.203-13), The Golden Rose (at pp.424-29), An International Marriage (at pp.456-59), A Mad Marriage (at pp.256-28).

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Quotations
Poetry
Apologia”, in Ballads and Lyrics (1891): ‘So in my book there will be found / No gleanings from a foreign ground, / If such you seek, go buy, go buy / Of some more travelled folk than I, / Kind Master Critic, say not, please, / How that her world so narrow is, / Since here she warns expectant eyes / That homely is her merchandise!’ Note that W. B. Yeats emulated the title in ‘Apologia to Ireland in the Coming Times’, printed at the end of “The Rose” section of The Countess Cathleen.

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See a selection of the poems of Katharine Tynan are given on the Irish Culture and Customs website [online]. The best-known of these among Irish readers are reproduced below.
Seven Poems by Katharine Tynan
“Sheep and Lambs”
“Flower of Youth”
“The Dead Coach”
“All-Souls”
“Turn o’ the Year”
“The Wind that Shakes the Barley”
“Any Woman”

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Any Woman”: ‘I am the pillars of the house; / The keystone of the arch am I. / Take me away, and roof and wall / Would fall to ruin me utterly. // I am the fire upon the hearth, / I am the light of the good sun, / I am the heat that warms the earth, / Which else were colder than a stone. // At me the children warm their hands; / I am their light of love alive. / Without me cold the hearthstone stands, / Nor could the precious children thrive. // I am the twist that holds together / The children in its sacred ring, / Their knot of love, from whose close tether / No lost child goes a-wandering. // I am the house from floor to roof, / I deck the walls, the board I spread; / I spin the curtains, warp and woof, / And shake the down to be their bed. // I am their wall against all danger, / Their door against the wind and snow, / Thou Whom a woman laid in a manger, / Take me not till the children grow!’

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The Wind That Shakes the Barley”: ‘There’s music in my heart all day, / I hear it late and early, / It comes from fields are far away, / The wind that shakes the barley. // Above the uplands drenched with dew / The sky hangs soft and pearly, / An emerald world is listening to / The wind that shakes the barley. // Above the bluest mountain crest / The lark is singing rarely, / It rocks the singer into rest, / The wind that shakes the barley. // Oh, still through summers and through springs / It calls me late and early. / Come home, come home, come home, it sings, / The wind that shakes the barley.’

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Prose
The Wild Harp: A Selection of Irish Poetry (London 1913), Introduction: ‘The Ireland of my young days was terribly unexacting in the matter of poetry … Of course there was always Mangan and Ferguson, Callanan and Edward Walsh, and the best of de Vere; but these were dead or old, and Ireland was placidly accepting for poetry what was merely propagandism or heartless exercises in unsimple simplicity. These were the things we young ones were reproducing with great satisfaction up to the time when W. B. Yeats brought a new soul into Irish poetry … What I would claim or Mr Yeats is that he established, or at least re-established, the artistic conscience and the artistic ideal in Irish Poetry.’ (p.xiv; quoted in Dominic Daly, The Young Douglas Hyde, 1974, p.131. Note: also cites S. Gwynn, Irish Literature and Drama (London 1936), p.121, ‘The greatest service that Yeats rendered to Ireland was his persistent refusal to accept as admirable anything that was commended solely by patriotic or virtuous intention.’

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Peeps at Ireland (1907): ‘I have been pulled up short as many times by the reflection that all I have been saying was contradicted by some other aspet of my country people for we are an eternally contradictory people. The Englishman is simple, the Irish complex. The Anglo-Irish have grafted on to them the complexity of the Irish without their pliability. It makes perhaps the most puzzling of mixtures.’ (Quoted in Ricky LeVert, ‘The Past Really is Another Country’, review of exhibition of the travel-books collection of Ciaran McAnally [at Limerick Univ.], in The Irish Times, 21 Feb. 2011, Weekend, p.6.)

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Kit (1917): ‘Oh, how glad I am that they are happy’ she said. ‘It was she he wanted all the time, not me. I knew there was some one. She is so lovely. You must know her one day and love her, Madam.’ [p.352]

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W. B. Yeats: ‘Sweeping away the whole poor fabric of the facile and readymade with which the Young Irish versifiers before his day were content, and rebuilding, as he has done, the nation’s poetry. heaven knows what rubbish he has delivered us from! We were all writing like the poets of a country newspaper.’ (Quoted in Frank Tuohy, Yeats, 1976, p.37.)

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References
Justin McCarthy, ed., Irish Literature (Washington: Catholic Univ. of America 1904), gives 12 poems. Portrait by John B. Yeats in the National Gallery of Ireland.

Her poem “Sheep and Lambs” was reprinted in The Oxford Book of Verse, ed. Arthur Quiller-Couch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1900) [see copy, attached].
The stories “A Martyr Indeed”; “How Mary Came Home” are incl. in Irish Stories 1893-1900, ed. Peter van de Kamp.

Alan Eager, A Guide to Irish Bibliographical Material and Some Sources of Information (London: Library Association 1964) lists Twenty-five Years: Reminiscences (1913); The Middle Years (1916); The Years of Shadow (1919); The Wandering Years (1923), all autobiographical.

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Desmond Clarke, Ireland in Fiction [Pt II] (Cork: Royal Carbery 1985), lists The Love of Brothers (1919); The Man from Australia; Deny the Dreamers; Bitha’s Wonderful Year; The House in the Bogs; They Loved Greatly (1924); The Golden Rose; Kitty at School and College; The River; The Playground; Delia’s Orchard; A Lonely Maid; The Forbidden Way; Connor’s Wood; The House of Dreams (1934).

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John Sutherland, The Longman Companion to Victorian Fiction (Longmans 1988; rep. 1989), calls her the 4th dg. of cattletrader with strong nationalist sympathies; sight damaged by measles; background Catholic and strict; first poems, 1878; pre-Raphaelite collection, 1885, subsidised by her father Andrew; first novel, The Way of A Maid (1895); slushy romantic fiction at a rate of 6 per annum; more serious efforts in religious verse; m. Henry Hinkson, barrister, whom she converted to Catholicism; Victorian fiction includes The Handsome Brandons (1899); She Walks in Beauty (1899). BL 94. See also Bio-note in Elaine Showalter, A Literature of their Own (1984).

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A. A. Kelly [Hampton], ed., A. A., Pillars of the House, Anthology of Verse by Irish Women, 1690 to the Present (Dublin: Wolfhound 1988), takes its title from a poem by Tynan.

Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2, remarks only at 782 [Dunsany introduces Ledwidge to], & 830 [Yeats associated with ‘the poet Katharine Tynan et al.]. FDA3 selects Twenty-Five Years [416-21]; WORKS & CRIT, 558 [as supra].

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Eilis Ní Dhuibhne, ed., Voices on the Wind: Women Poets of the Celtic Twilight (New Island Books 1995), 144pp., incl. 34 of her poems, along with others by Eva Gore-Booth; Susan Mitchell; Nora Chesson Hopper; Ethna Carbery; Dora Sigerson Shorter.

Maunsel Catalogue (1915), appended as list to pop. edn. of St. John Ervine’s Mrs. Martin’s Man [1914], notices Countrymen All by Katherine [sic] Tynan, short stories of Irish people, ‘delightfully Irish’ (Morning Post),with Souris, by Fay Middleton, new author, dealing with ‘the realities of a friendship which can exist between women, two studies in feminity, one tempestuous and beautiful, the other charming and serene, now life brought peace and happiness to one, through a sea of sorrow, and how a tragic fate pursued the other, although the brightest prospects heralded the opening of her career … [a book] wherein love and passion play their accustomed part.

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Collins Catalogue appended to edn. of Ervine’s The Wayward Man notices The Respectable Lady, a charming study of English village life in which ‘The respectable lady [sic] provides a startling surprise for her many admirers and is in many ways one of miss Tynan’s most interesting creations.’

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Kennys Books (Cat. 2004) lists The river (London: Literary Press [1929]), 247, [5]pp., and Do., [6th Edn.] Glasgow , Sydney & Auckland: W. Collins Sons 1933), 247pp. [a story of two great loves battling against the prejudices and jealousies of Protestant-Catholic traditions]; A cluster of nuts; being sketches among my own people (London: Lawrence & Bullen 1894), 242pp.; A little book for John O’Mahony’s friends (Portland, Me.: T.B. Mosher 1909), ix, [1], 56pp. [15 cm]. orig. pb.; Denys the dreamer (London: W. Collins Sons & Co. [1920]), vi, 274pp.; Peeps at many lands: Ireland (London: A. and C. Black, 1911), 87pp., 12 leaves of pls.; maps [20 cm.]; The poems of Katherine Tynan / edited with an introduction by Monk Gibbon. Dublin: Figgis 1963), 100pp., 16 cm. [ distrib. in U.S.A. by Dufour]; Flower of youth: poems in war time [3 rd imp.] London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1917), 80pp. [ ‘First impression, June 1915; second impression, Dec. 1915; third impression, Dec., 1917’]; Louise de la Vallière: and other poems [2 nd Edn.] London: K. Paul, Trench, & Co. 1886), xii, 102, 9pp.; Herb o’ grace: poems in war-time (London: Sidgwick & Jackson 1918), 1[,] 20pp.

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Notes
Portrait: A bespectacled portrait in oil by John B. Yeats held in the Municipal Gallery of Ireland is rep. in A. N. Jeffares, W. B. Yeats: Man and Poet (London: Routledge 1949 & Edns.), pls., between pp.182-83, and captioned Katherine [sic] Tynan Hinkson.

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