James Stephens (?1880-1950)

b. [prob. at Rotunda Mat. Hosp., Dublin; 9 Feb. 1880 [var 1882 by his own account]; son of Francis Stephens and Charlotte [née] Collins [b. circa 1847 ; his father, a vanman and stationer’s messenger who died two years later [1883 or 1883], after which his mother joined [remarried] the Collins’ family home, Dublin, 1886; and was henceforth called Mrs Collins]; Stephens apprehended when begging in the street and committed to the Meath Protestant Industrial School for Boys (Blackrock), 1886-96; competed keenly in athletics with his two brothers, in spite of his diminutive size (4’6”); ran away persistently; ed. with his Collins brother Tom and Dick; competed with them in a gymnastics team which won the Irish Shield, 1901 - despite James’s tiny stature (4’10”; affectionately known as “Tiny Tim”); enthralled by tales of military valour in his adoptive family; first worked as clerk in the firm of Wallace (solicitor) and later for Reddington & Sainsbury, (solicitors);
published his earliest story, 1905 (‘My life began when I started ’’ - to step.dg. Iris; acc. McFate); submitted work to Arthur Griffith's Sinn Fein - initially without return address; influenced by Griffith, he began to attend Irish classes; prepared three lectures on Cromwell and Charles II (1), James II and the Boyne (2), and Douglas Hyde [“the greatest man in Ireland today “] (3), all during 1905; also on Douglas Hyde; took work as clerk-typist [stenographer] T. T. Mecredy & Son, solicitors, 1906; then living in household of the Kavanaghs, who soon divorced; followed Millicent Gardner Kavanagh from her marriage home to another lodging, together with her dg. Iris (b. 14 June 1907); made known his marriage to “Cynthia” [prop. Millicent Josephine Gardiner Kavanagh] becomes friendly with Arthur Griffith, 1906 making himself known as the author of the submitted poems, stories, and essays; also contrib. to Irish Worker; George [“AE”] Russell read a poem by JS in Sinn Féin, and sought meeting, heralding him as a new Irish genius, 1907 [event retold in George Moore’s Ave]; a son James Naoise, b. 26 Oct. 1909 [d. in an accident, 1937]; issued Insurrections (1909), his first collection of poems - ironically sharing a title with his later memoir of the Dublin Rising of 1916 [viz., The Insurrection in Dublin, 1916];
met Thomas MacDonagh in 1910; contribs. “Mary, A Story” to Irish Review (April 1911-Feb. 1912), afterwards issues as The Charwoman’s Daughter (1912), ded. to the Dublin gynecologist Bethel Solomons; issues The Crock of Gold (1912), mixing whimsy, theosophy, and folk-tale; subject of a long essay by George Russell, 1912; winner of de Polignac Prize, 1914; travels to Paris on advice of Thomas Bodkin, accompanied by Cynthia, 1912-15; wrote Here Are Ladies in Closerie des Lilas, a Montparnasse café - where he lost and recovered the MS; issued Here Are Ladies (1913), a realistic story-sequence narrated by a garrulous old man - the model for the Philosopher in The Crock of Gold - and mostly about ‘the extraordinary debate called marriage’([excepting “There is a Tavern in the Town” and two others]; issued The Demi-Gods (1914), a refinement of the amalgam first seen in The Crock of Gold; learned of post at National Gallery and applies; appointed Registrar, 1915-25 [var. 1924]; left Paris 15 Aug. 1915; became friendly with Edmund Curtis, Osborn Bergin, Richard Best and Stephen MacKenna; studied the Irish Texts Society editions of Irish saga material;
issued a diary-account of the Easter Rising as Insurrection in Dublin (1916), first published as extract in The Green Book; in it he writes of the executions that it was ‘like watching blood oozing from under a door’ [q.source]; m. Cynthia Kavanagh, London 1919, on the death of her husband; wrote a preface for the Poetical Works of Thomas MacDonagh (1916), at MacDonagh’s wife’s behest; engaged in long-term project translating of Irish saga material conceived as an Irish comèdie humaine; issued Irish Fairy Tales (1920) - based on the Fiannaíocht; settles in Kingsbury, London and worked successfully as a BBC broadcaster, 1922; Cynthia disturbed by Irish Civil War and sends children to school in England; issued In the Land of Youth (1924), a novel dealing with Maeve’s [Mebhdh] war with the men of Ulster (i.e., the narrative of Táin Bó Cuailgne) - intended as an introduction to his fuller treatment of the Táin by uncompleted through exhaustion; issued his Collected Poems (1926; rev. edn. 1954); undertook the first of several lecture tours to the USA in America under patronage of W.T.H. Howe of Kentucky [Cincinnati; Pres. of the American Book Company]; suffered with his health and was hospitalised - Cornelius Sullivan (a stockbrocker) attending to the cost of his return to Ireland;

me James Joyce in Paris, 1927 - learned that Joyce believed they shared a birthday on 2 Feb. 1882, by his own account Joyce suggested that Stephens complete "Work in Progress" [Finnegans Wake] if failing eyesight prevented him from doing so himself (“The James Joyce I Knew” [broadcast], in The Listener, 24 Oct. 1940); suffered the loss of his close friends Stephen MacKenna and “AE “ Russell in 1934 and 1935; stricken by the freak death of his son Naoise in Dec. 1937 - blows which virtually ended his career as a literary artist [McFate]; visited Romania and met Queen Marie there; resumed broadcasting with BBC, 1941 - and continued with it throughout World War II; declared himself an Englishman on the day that Italy entered the War; move in Gloucestershire with his family during the Blitz and commuted to London for broadcasts; gave more than 70 radio-talks during 1937-50 - on poets and poetry, reminiscences of friends and reading verse; settled in cottage on Cotswolds estate of Sir William Rothenstein [patron]; received British Civil Pension List, 1942; awarded DLitt. from TCD, travelling to Dublin to receive it on a grant from the Royal Bounty Fund;

issues A Rhinoceros, Some Ladies, and A Horse (1946), being the sole part of a commissioned autobiography; passed last years in ill-health and depression [‘unreasoned anger’]; underwent several abdominal operations between 1920 and 1948 - presumably related to childhood hunger; passes time in Trafalgar Sq. and bookshops and fends off illness and syncope [fainting]; gave his last broadcast on “Childhood Days: Mogue, or Cows and Kids”, 11 June 1950; d. at home (Eversleigh, London), on St. Stephen’s Day, 26 Dec. 1950; The Crock of Gold went through 46 American editions between 1912 and 1947, incl. 3 special editions for the America forces in WWII; Cynthia survives until 1960; there is a bronze head of Stephens by Arthur Power (1914); Mary Makebelieve was successfully treated as a drama (Dublin Theatre Festival, 1982); his step-daughter Iris was married to Norman Wise [see McFate, Uncoll. Prose, Vol. II - Acknows.]. NCBE DIW DIB DIL OCEL KUN FDA OCIL
Note on JS’s date of birth: ‘Behind the humorous recollections, however, is a painful reality: no one (perhaps not even Stephens) knew the date of his birth. He used a birthdate of 2 February 1882, also the birthdate of James Joyce, who made much of this symbolic connection when he discovered it. Oliver St John Gogarty and Hilary Pyle have sought to prove that he was born on g February 1880 (and that his father died when Stephens was two), but they have only circumstantial evidence to present. Some critics believe that he changed his birthdate to coincide with that of Joyce; but his stepdaughter states that his birthday was always celebrated on 2 February, and his friendship with Joyce came fourteen years after his use, in 1913, of the birthdate generally accepted for him. It may also be the case that his family name was not Stephens, that he selected the name to [3] do honour to the great Fenian leader James Stephens. He may have been the James Stephens who was an orphan living in the Meath Protestant Industrial School for Boys in Dublin from 1886 to 1896. He certainly was the Stephens on the Dawson Street Gymnastic Club when it won the Irish Shield in 1901. He worked as a stenographer in a variety of offices - most of which are unknown from 1896 to 1906. It is only in 1907, when Stephens became a published author and the head of a household, that his life can be traced. In later years, he continued to spin stories of his youth. The fragment of a manuscript which follows is undated. It may be viewed as autobiography or fiction; in either case it is an interesting glimpse of the artist as a young man.’ (Patricia McFate, Preface, Uncollected Prose of James Stephens, Gill & Macmillan 1985), Vol. I, pp.3-4.)

Stephens in Ulysses: In Ulysses Joyce called Stephens George Moore’s Dulcinea to Moore’s Don Quixote in the Library episode. (See Gabler. ed., Ulysses [1922], Corr. Edn., 1984, U9.312.) - reflecting Russell’s decision to regard Stephen’s as the new literary genius in Dublin. By the same analagous token, Edward Martyn is Moore’s Sancho Panza. (U9, 312; U9.308.)

[ See James Stephens - “A Chronology” - infra. ]

Patrick Tuohy Fine Art of America James_Stephens-photo Unknown bronze Arthur Power (1914)
Oil by Patrick Tuohy Photo-port (q.d.) Granger Art (NY) Bronze (Artist Unknown) Head by Arthur Power (1914)
[ See also portraits ports. by William Rothenstein, Mary Duncan, and Mervyn Peake. There is a photo-series in the National Portrait Gallery (London), with Sir Peter Courtney Quennell, Gilbert Spencer, the Eliots (TS & Vivien), Lady Huxley, Samuel Solomonovich Koteliansky, et al., all taken Lady Otteline Morrell in 1929 - online. ]

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Poetry (Collections)
  • Insurrections [Verses] (Dublin: Maunsel; London: Macmillan 1909,1912,1915), 55, [1]pp., 8o. [ded. “AE”], and Do. [6th edn. (Maunsel 1917), [4], 63, [1]pp.
  • The Hill of Vision (Dublin: Maunsel; London: Macmillan 1912, 131pp.; 3rd edn. Macmillan 1922, 124pp.).
  • Songs from the Clay (London: Macmillan 1915).
  • Green Branches (Dublin & London: Maunsel 1916), 16pp. elegy to leaders of 1916] [viz., 18 [1] ltd. edn. 500] [“Autumn 1915”, “Spring 1916”, “Joy Be With Us”]; Do. (NY: Macmillan Co. 1916), 32pp. unnumbered leaves printed one side only; see note]; Do. [new edn] (1917) [poems two and three of these included as single longer poem under one title “Spring 1916” in Collected Poems].
  • Reincarnations (London: Macmillan 1918).
  • A Poetry Recital ([q.pub.] 1925).
  • Strict Joy (London & NY: Macmillan 1931).
  • Kings and the Moon (London & NY: Macmillan 1938).


  • Collected Poems of James Stephens (London: Macmillan 1926 [Oct.; rep. Nov. 1929], 1931, 1941), xiv, 268pp., and Do. [another edn.] (NY: Devin-Adair 1954), 390pp.
  • The Poems of James Stephens, ed. by Shirley Stevens Mulligan, intro. by A. N. Jeffares [Univ. of Michigan 2001] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 2006), xlii, 343pp. [contains 320+ poems and lists those in the 1954 Collected Poems.]

Samuel Adler, Four Poems of James Stephens: For High voice and Piano (NY & London: OUP [1963]), score [in] 4 vols.; see other settings by Samuel Barber and by Michael Bowles.


Note that many of the fiction works listed below are accessible in full-text form either in RICORSO Library > Irish Classics or on internet - as listed lower down this page - as infra.

  • The Charwoman’s Daughter (London: Macmillan 1912), 228pp.; Do., as Mary, Mary (Boston: [see list of editions - infra].
  • The Crock of Gold (London: Macmillan 1912), 311pp. [see editions and extracts].
  • Here Are Ladies (London: Macmillan 1913), 348pp [see details & text].
  • The Demi-Gods (London: Macmillan 1914); Do., [another edn.] intro. by Augustine Martin (Dublin 1982).
  • [as James Esse,] Hunger: A Dublin Story (Dublin: Three Candle Press 1918) [rep. in Etched by Moonlight, 1928].
  • Irish Fairy Tales, retold by James Stephens (London: Macmillan 1920) [see details], ill. by Arthur Rackham [inc. “The Story of Tuan MacCairill”, 1923 edn. pp.1-33]; Do. [ facs. rep.] (London: Godfrey Cave Assoc. 1979), x+318pp, 16 pls.; Do., rep. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1995).
  • In the Land of Youth (London & NY: Macmillan 1924), 303pp.
  • Etched in Moonlight (London & NY: Macmillan 1928), 198pp.
  • Deirdre (London & NY: Macmillan 1923), 286pp., and Do. [in French trans. as Deirdre] (Paris: Stock 1947).
  • How St. Patrick Saved the Irish (priv. 1931).
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  • Julia Elizabeth: A Comedy, in One Act (NY: Crosby Gaige, 1929), 24pp. [orig. developed as a dialogue in “Three Lovers Lost” in Here are Ladies; see also publishing note - infra].
  • The Optimist (q.pub. 1929).
  • The Outcast [Ariel ser.] (London: Faber & Faber 1929).
Selected & Collected Edns.
  • Lloyd Frankenburg, ed., James Stephens: A Selection (London & NY: Macmillan 1962).
  • Frankenburg, ed., James, Seumas and Jacques: Unpublished Writings (London & NY: Macmillan 1964.
  • Patricia McFate, Uncollected Early Writings of James Stephens, ed. [Journal of Irish Literature, Vol. 4, No. 3] (Prosenium Press 1975), 200pp.
  • Richard J. Finneran & Patricia McFate, ed. and intro. The Journal of Irish Literature, “James Stephens Special Number”, 4: 3 [gen. ed. Robert Hogan] (Delaware Sept. 1975), 200pp. [contains play-version of The Demi-Gods, 3 acts; ‘Uncollected Early Writings’, ed. Patricia McFate, pp.47-61; other fiction, poetry, essays, and book reviews.].
  • Augustine Martin, ed., Desire and Other Stories ([q. pub.] 1981).
  • Patricia McFate, ed., Uncollected Prose of James Stephen, 2 vols. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983) [Vol. 1, 1907-15, 128pp., front. - see contents; Vol. 2, 1916-48, xvi, 131-299pp.].
  • Shirley Stevens Mulligan, ed., The Poems of James Stephens (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 2007), 361pp.
  • The Insurrection in Dublin (Dublin: Maunsel; London: Macmillan 1916), xiv+111pp. [see edition details] or open text - as attached].
  • Arthur Griffith, Journalist and Statesman (Dublin: Wilson, Hartnell & Co. [1924]).
  • On Prose and Verse (NY: Bowling Green Press 1928).
  • Themes and Variations (NY; The Fountain Press 1930) [ltd. 850 copies].
  • “How the Husband of the Thin Woman Lost his Brother”, in Irish Review (Aug 1912), pp.396-03.
  • Richard J. Finneran, ed., Letters of James Stephens (London & NY: Macmillan 1974), with listing of published writings, xxiv+481pp., 8[pp.] plates, facs., ports.;
A BBC talk on W. B. Yeats (London 1948) - see further under Yeats, as infra.
Note: Etched in Moonlight (London: Macmillan & Co. 1928), ltd. edn. [presentation copy ‘For James Joyce with affectionate regards. James Stephens’; Kings and the Moon (NY: Macmillan Co. 1938) [presentation copy: ‘For James Joyce from James Stephens on our birthday 2nd Feb. 1939]’; see The Personal Library of James Joyce; ed. Thomas E. Connolly (Buffalo UL 1953), p.35.
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Electronic editions
Ricorso Editions of the Works (htms in this frame; docs as downloads files; pdfs in new window)
Title Available as ..

The Charwoman’s Daughter (1912)

.htm ,doc .pdf

The Crock of Gold (1912)

.htm .doc .pdf

Here Are Ladies (1913)

.htm .doc .pdf

Irish Fairy Tales (London: Macmillan 1920)

.htm .doc .pdf

Insurrection - (Dublin: Maunsel 1916)

.htm .doc .pdf
NB: All .doc files will download; others appear in this window.

Internet Editions of the Works at Internet Archive

The Crock of Gold (NY Macmillan [1912])


The Demigods (NY: Macmillan 1917)


Irish Fairy Tales (1920), ill. Arthur Rackham


Collected Poems (London: Macmillan 1926)

The Gutenberg Project Editions of the Works

The Charwoman’s Daughter, intro. by Padraic Colum (NY Boni & Liveright 1912)


Here Are Ladies (NY 1914)


Insurrection in Dublin (Dublin: Maunsel & Co 1916)


Irish Fairy Tales (London: Macmillan 1920)


Index of publications available at Internet Archive - Supplied by Clare County Library

Irish Fairy Tales, by Stephens, James
Published in 1920, The Macmillan company (New York)
Contributions: Rackham, Arthur, ill. (1867-1939).
Pagination: 7 p., l., 5-318pp.
Available at Internet Archive

The Crock of Gold, by Stephens, James
Published in 1912, Macmillan (London)
Pagination: 311pp.
Available at Internet Archive



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Bibliographical details

The Charwoman’s Daughter (1912) [first serialised in The Irish Review, ed. Thomas MacDonagh, April 1911-Feb. 1912]
The Charwoman’s Daughter (London: Macmillan 1912), 228pp. The Charwoman’s Daughter (London: Macmillan 1917), 228pp. + 2pp. listing of Stephens’ works available at date with notices on same; [...] Do. [viz., Charwoman], rep. with intro. by Hilary Pyle (London: Sceptre Books 1966); rep., with intro. by Augustine Martin (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1972), 128pp.; French trans. as Mary Semblant (Paris: Rieder 1927), with French preface in by Stephens; The Charwoman’s Daughter [facs. of London 1917] (USA: Andesite Press n.d.) [Creativemedia.io - www.ICGtesting.com); also available at Gutenberg Project [Aus.] - online.

USA Editions - as Mary, Mary, introduced by Padraic Colum (NY: Boni and Liveright [printed by Small, Maynard & Co., Boston] 1912); Do., rep. edn. (NY: Boni & Liveright [1917]), [i-xiv] 1-263 [1]p., 5l. 16.4cm [Chaps. with Arabic numbers; see extract from preface by Colum - infra]. There is a large print edn. of 2008 from BiblioBazaar; 272pp.]

Note that the pagination of the American editions is shorter given that there are more words per page - e.g., p.1 runs to

Query: The Charwoman’s Daughter is listed in the Wikipedia Bio-Chronology as a publication of Talbot Press - the company that acquired the list of the original publisher Maunsel. See Talbot Press, Books About Ireland: The Talbot Press Catalogue of Books, including books formerly issued by Maunsel & Roberts and Martin Lester (Dublin 1938). (Cited in Frances Ferguson, Remembering Revolution: Dissent, Culture and Nationalism in the Irish Free State (Oxford UP 2015), Bibliog., p.221.)

Green Branches ((NY: Macmillan Co. 1916), ltd. edn. 500 copies; 32 unnumbered leaves on one side only; see note] octavo [8 “ 3/16 x 5 “11/16 inches; 208x145 mm; Bound in 1922, stamp-signed “A - S 1922” in gilt on rear turn-in. Full dark green levant morocco, covers decoratively tooled in gilt with a framework of flowers and stems surrounding a gilt ruled border which in turn surrounds another gilt border with similar floral tools in the corners and top and lower edges. Spine with five raised bands, decoratively tooled with the same floral design in compartments. Gilt ruled board edges, and wide turn-ins with triple gilt rules and the same gilt flower ornaments in the corners, all edges gilt. Minimal darkening to spine. A very fine example. (Notice by David Brass Rare Books, NY - online; accessed 25.10.2020; see extract - infra, and full-text -attached.]

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The Crock of Gold (1912)

Macmillan edition

The Crock of Gold (London: Macmillan [Oct.] 1912), [2], v, [1], 311, [5]p., 19cm. [available in Internet Archive - view]; Do. [2nd imp. Nov. 1912; also 1913, 1914, 1916, 1918), [3pp.], v-[vi], 311, [1]pp., 19 cm.; Do (London: Macmillan 1922), 298pp., ill. [drawings by Wilfred Jones, some col.]; Do. [Macmillan Facsimile Classic Ser.] (London: Macmillan 1926), [3], v-[vi] 1-311, [1]pp. [227pp.]; Do. [printed by R. & R. Clark, Edinburgh] (NY: Macmillan 1926), [10], 227, [5]p., ill. [with twelve illustrations in colour and decorative headings and tailpieces by Thomas Mackenzie]; Do. (London: Macmillan 1928), v, 311pp.; Do. (NY: Macmillan 1928) [12 ills.; front. facing title, ‘The Philosophers were able to hear each other thinking all day long’ (p.5); Do. (NY: Macmillan [St. Martin’s Press] 1953, 1965), v-311pp.; Do. [facs. of London 1926 Edn.] (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1980, 1995), 227pp.

Pan edition*

    • Do., foreword specially written for the Pan edition by Walter de la Mare (London: Pan Books 1953), 190pp., and Do. [reps. of 1953 edn.] (1965, 1973, 1978), 190pp.
*Note: Pan is the paperback division of Macmillan, London.

Other editions

    • Do., With an introduction by Clifton Fadiman (NY: The Limited Editions Club New York 1942), ill. [by Robert Lawson], [10], 163, [3]pp., 29.7 cm. [1,500 copies].†.

†See The Monthly Letter of The Limited Editions Club, No. 146 (June 1942), published to coincide with distrib. of an illustrated edn. of The Crock of Gold, which includes a preface by Clifton Fadiman.]

    • Do., trans. as Götter, Menschen, Kobolde: eine irische Erzählung [übertragen von Herta Hartmanshenn] (Wiesbaden: Bu¨chdruckerei Reinhold Witting 1947), 160pp..
    • Do., trans. as Le pot d’or [traduit de l’anglais par A. et M. Malblanc] (Paris: F. Rieder et Cie. 1925), 240pp.
Note: The Crock of Gold (1912) went through 46 American editions between 1912 and 1947, incl. 3 special editions for use by the America forces in WWII. In America the work was generally read for its Irish folklore without reference to the satirical line of the story. (See Eamon Kelly, review of After the Flood: Irish America, 1945-1960, ed. Matthew J. O’Brien & James Silas Rogers, 2009, in Books Ireland, March 2011, p.49.) See also extracts and plot summary, infra; for full-text version, see RICORSO Library > Classics > James Stephens - as .pdf [in-frame] or .doc [download].

Here are Ladies (London: Macmillan 1913), 348pp - Contents: “Women”; “Three Heavy Husbands”; “A Glass of Bee”; “One and One”; “Three Women Who Wept”; “The Triangle”; “The Daisies”; “Three Angry People”; “The Threepenny Piece”; “Brigid”; “Three Young Wives”; “The Horses Mistress”; “Quiet Eyes”; “Three Lovers Who Lost”; “The Blind Man”; “Sweet-Apple”; “Three Happy Places”; “The Moon”; “There Is a Tavern in the Town” (70pp.). [See full-text copy in RICORSO Library > Irish Classics - via index & direct or attached].

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The Insurrection in Dublin (1916)
The Insurrection in Dublin [1st edn.] (Dublin & London: Maunsel & Company Ltd 1916), xiv+111pp. [also a 2nd impression]; Do. (NY: Macmillan 1916), 148pp. [available at Gutenberg Project - online; Do. [6th edn.] (Dublin: Maunsel & Company Ltd 1917) Do. (NY: The Macmillan Company 1917), 148pp. [American printed; available at Internet Archive - online]; Do. (Dublin & London: Maunsel & Company Ltd 1919). 111pp.; Do. [3rd edn.] (Chicago: Scepter Books 1965). 100pp. [copyright Iris Wyse]; Do [rep. edn.], with an introduction & afterword by John A. Murphy [ facs. of Maunsel Edn of 1916] (Gerrard’s Cross, Bucks.: Colin Smythe 1978; rep. 1992). xxxiv, 116pp., ill. (See extracts, infra; for full-text version, see RICORSO Library > Classics > James Stephens - Insurrection - in this window, or attached; also as .doc [download])

Irish Fairy Tale (1920)

Irish Fairy Tales, by James Stephens, ill. by Arthur Rackham (NY: Macmillan 1920), 318pp. CONTENTS: The Story of Tuan Mac Cairill; The Boyhood of Fionn; The Birth of Bran; Oisin’s Mother; The Wooing of Becfola; The Little Brawl at Allen; The Carl of the Drab Coat; The Enchanted Cave of Cesh Corran; Mongan’s Frenzy. [Available at Sacred Texts online; accessed 25.10.2010; also at Gutenberg Project online- and see copy in RICORSO - direct or attached; also separately as .doc. and .pdf.]

[Note: A signed copy of Collected Poems of James Stephens (Macmillan 1926) [ltd. edn. 500 large paper copies], 260pp. [ded. “AE”; is in the possession of Joan Bullock, Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh - a grand-neice of Shan Bullock, q.v.]

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Uncollected Prose of James Stephens, ed. Patricia McFate, 2 vols. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983

[Vol. 1 128pp; Vol. II, 71pp. - but notice that the 2 volumes are page-numbered continuously]
Vol. 1: 1907-15
Autobiographical Fragment, pp.5-9; PROSE WRITINGS - UNDATED The Seoinin [i.e., Shoneen/West-Briton, pp.17-20; Builders Pages, pp.20-23; Patriotism and Parochial Politics, pp.23-26; Irish Englishmen pp.26-29; Poetry, pp.29-32; Mrs Maurice M’Quillan, pp.32-36; Tattered Thoughts, pp.37-41; The Insurrection of ’98, pp.47-54; Success, pp.55-58; The Old Philosopher Discourses on the Viceregal Microbe, pp.58-61; The Old Philosopher Discourses on Government. pp.61-64; Imagination, pp.64-67; Irish Idiosyncrasies, pp.67-76; Good and Evil, pp.76-78; On Politeness, pp.78-81; Facts, pp.81-84; A Gaelic League Art Exhibition, pp.84-85; Caricatures, pp.86-87; The Old Philosopher Discourses on Lawyers, pp.87-90; The Populace Mind: I, pp.97-98; The Populace Mind: II; pp.99-101; The Populace Mind: III, pp.102-103; The Populace Mind: IV; pp.104-106; In Shining Armour, pp.106-109; Come Off That Fence!, pp.109-112; Going to Work, pp.112-115; An Essay in Cubes, pp.115-125; The Old Woman’s Money, pp.125-128 [Century Magazine, 90 (May 1915), p.49]. [Available as readable text at Springer - online; accessed 26.09.2020.]
Vol 2 - 1916-48
Portrait of the Author as a Celebrity Frontispiece [phot.], ix; Preface [ix]; Acknowledgements [x]; Chronology [xii]. PROSE WRITINGS -1916-25: God Bless the Work [135]; In the Interval [139]; In the Silence [139]; Conscription and the Return of the Dog [141]; Phamphlet [143]; Crèpe de Chine [144]; Sawdust [149]; The Birthday Party [154]; Dublin/A City of Wonderful Dreams/Silent and Voluble Folk [158]; Mythology/Quaint Tales of Origination/The Cult of Death [163]; The Thieves [170]; Ireland Returning to Her Fountains [177]; And Adventure in Prophecy [181]; The Outlook for Literature with Special Reference to Ireland [185]; An Interview with Mr James Stephens by our Special Correspondent [James Esse]; Tochmairc Etaine: The Immortal Hour, I [199]; Tochmairc Etaine: The Immortal Hour, II [202]; The Novelist and Final Utterance [204]]; Growth in Fiction [208]. PROSE WRITINGS - 1926-37: London Woos a Man [215]; Trying to Find the Strand [218]; How St Patrick Saves the Irish [22]; For St Patrick’s Day [223]; A Poetry Reading with Comments [226]; The Passing of “Æ” [230], PROSE WRITINGS - 1938-48: Thomas Moore: Champion Minor Poet [239]; The “Period Talent” of G K. Chesterton [243]; W. B. Yeats: A Tribute [248]. TWO PLAYS, 1921 & 1929: The Demi-Gods [255]; Julia Elizabeth: A Comedy in One Act [289]; Select Bibliography [ 297]. Includes other titles. [Available at Google Books - online; accessed 04.06.2020; TOC and some pages available at Springer - as download; accessed 26.09.2020.] Note: Many of the individual pieces works are by-lined James Esse.
Patricia McFate, ed., Uncollected Prose of James Stephen (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983), Vol. 2 - Contents [available at Google Books online - with links to texts in blue; accessed 04.06.2020]

Mary Makebelieve - the Musical

The Charwoman’s Daughterwas produced by the actress Rosaleen Linehan and her journalist husband Fergus Linehan and in a musical stage-version that held the boards and travelled in Ireland during the 1980s and 1990s. Bríd Ní Neachtain played the role of Mary with Linehan as her mother to a score Jim Doherty. It was premiered at Peacock in Oct. 1982 and then went on a seemingly endlessly tour in Ireland. It was successfully revived at the Gate in 1993 and again in April 2016 with a cast of six playing nine roles.

See Arminta Wallace, ‘An Irish Cinderella’, in ‘The Times We Lived In’ [column], The Irish Times (9 April 2016): It has been called an Irish Cinderella story, but there’s a bit more to James Stephens’s whimsical novel The Charwoman’s Daughter than that. For one thing, it inspired Fergus and Rosaleen Linehan to write a musical, Mary Makebelieve, which was hugely popular in Ireland in the 1980s and 1990s. With an original score by Jim Doherty and a cast that included Barry McGovern and Eileen Reid, it was a show that just kept growing: it premiered at the Peacock in 1982, transferred to the Abbey stage in short order, then toured triumphantly around Ireland. In 1993 there was a new production at the Gate Theatre, which is when our photo was taken. And if this image wouldn’t make you want to get your glad rags on and get yourself to Cavendish Row pretty sharpish, I don’t know what would.

As the teenage Mary, Jacinta Whyte looks as fresh as the proverbial daisy. Her hands rest protectively on the shoulders of her widowed “mammy”, played by Rosaleen Linehan - or maybe she’s holding on because she looks perky and upbeat enough to fly away if not anchored to the stage. The mammy, meanwhile, is dressed in black - actually, not quite black; her blouse has a discreet but definite pattern, and that hat could feasibly take her to Ascot - and wears a smile so slight, regal and knowing, it puts the Mona Lisa into the halfpenny place. See me? she seems to be thinking. If you want to marry my daughter, you’ll have to pass me first.

If there are opening night nerves on the part of either actor, they certainly don’t show. In due course the critics gave the piece their blessing. ‘Fast- moving and very enjoyable,’ wrote Frank Shouldice in The Irish Press. He went on to praise Barry McGovern for his rendition of the comic number “A Policeman in Love” - which is something, I reckon, we’d all pay to see, any day of the week. (Available online; accessed 20.03.2022.)

[See also David O’Grady, review of Mary Makebelieve, in Stage and Screen, 33:12 (Dec. 1982), pp.770-73 - available in JSTOR online [first page only without password; accessed 20.03.2022.]

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  • Birgit Bramsbäck, James Stephens: A Literary and Bibliographical Study [Upsala Irish Studies, No. & and Cambridge, MA] (Lundequist and Harvard University Press 1959); Do. (Folcroft Lib. Eds. 1973), 209pp. [see details]; and Do. (Philadelphia, PA: R. West 1977), 209pp.
  • Hilary Pyle, James Stephens, His Work and An Account of His Life (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1965), xi [1], 196pp. [2 lvs of pls.].
  • Augustine Martin, James Stephens: A Critical Study (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1977), xii, 177pp. [see extract].
  • Augustine Martin & Patricia McFate, The Writings of James Stephens: Variations on a Theme of Love (NJ, Totowa: Rowman & Littlefield 1977), 177pp.
  • Patricia McFate, Writings of James Stephens (London: Macmillan; NY: St. Martin’s 1979), xiv, 183pp. [see details].
  • Margaret Black, James Stephens: Creative Artist and Irish Nationalist [Masters thesis] (Kent State University, Department of English 1976), 116pp.
General studies

Early reviews incl. Rebecca West, review of The Charwoman's Daughter, in Freewoman: A Weekly Feminist Review, 1: 20 (4 April 1912), pp.358-88 [cited in Werner Huber, 1995, infra].

  • George [“AE”] Russell, ‘The Poetry of James Stephens’ [ in Imagination and Reveries, 1915); 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan 1925), pp.43-53.
  • Ernest A. Boyd, Ireland’s Literary Renaissance (Dublin: Maunsel 1916) - “James Stephens”, pp.265-74 [poetry], & pp.391-93 [fiction] - see extracts.
  • Benedict Kiely, ‘Clay and Gods and Men: The Worlds of James Stephens’, in The Irish Bookman (October 1946), [q.p.], rep. in ‘A Raid into Dark Corners and Other Essays (Cork UP 1999), pp. 84-94.
  • Vivian Mercier, ‘James Stephens, His Version of Pastoral’, in Irish Writing, 14 (March 1951), pp.47-59.
  • Augustine Martin, ‘James Stephens: Lyric Poet’, in Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 49: 194 (Summer 1960), pp.173-82 [available at JSTOR - online.].
  • Oliver St John Gogarty, ‘James Stephens?’ in Colby Library Quarterly [‘A Tribute to James Stephens (1882-1950)] (March 1961), pp.203-15 [available online; accessed 24.09.2020; afterwards printed in Gogarty’s The Nine Worthies.
  • Richard Cary, ‘James Stephens at Colby College’, in Colby Library Quarterly, 5: 9 (March 1961), pp.224-53 [Catalogue of memorabilia].
  • Birgit Bramsbrack, ‘James Stephens: Dublin - Paris - Return’, in Colby Library Quarterly [‘A Tribute to James Stephens (1882-1950)] (March 1961) , pp.203-15.
  • Augustine Martin, ‘The Crock of Gold: Fifty Years After’, in Colby Library Quarterly, 6, 4 (1962), pp.148-58 [see extract].
  • Augustine Martin, ‘The Short Stories of James Stephens’, in Colby Library Quarterly, Vol. 6 (Dec. 1963), ppp.343-53 [see extract & copy - as attached].
  • Patricia Ann McFate, ‘James Stephens’s Deirdre’, in Éire-Ireland, 4, 3 (Autumn 1969), pp.87-93 [see extract].
  • Richard Finneran, ‘James Joyce and James Stephens: The Record of a Friendship with Unpublished Letters from Joyce to Stephens’, in James Joyce Quarterly, 11, 3 (Spring 1974), pp.279-92 [see extract; available at JSTOR - online; accessed 02.09.2020].
  • Richard J. Finneran, ‘Literature and Nationality in the Work of James Stephens’, in South Atlantic Bulletin, XL: 4 [South Atlantic Modern Language Association] (Nov. 1975), pp.18-25 - available at JSTOR - online; accessed 22.10.2020 [password required].
  • Jochen Achilles, ‘The Charwoman’s Daughter and the Emergence of National Psychology’, in Irish University Review, XI: 2 (Autumn 1981), pp.184-97.
    Richard Finneran, The Olympian and the Leprechaun: W. B. Yeats and James Stephens [New Yeats Papers 16] (Dublin: Dolmen 1978), 36pp.
  • John A. Murphy, intro. & afterword to James Stephens, The Insurrection in Dublin [rep. edn.] (Gerrard’s Cross, Bucks.: Colin Smythe 1978), xxxiv[35]pp.
  • Alan Warner, ‘James Stephens’, in A Guide to Anglo-Irish Literature (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1981), pp.121-131.
  • Jochen Achilles, ‘The Charwoman’s Daughter and the Emergence of National Psychology’, in Irish University Review 11, 2 (Autumn 1981), pp.184-97 [see first page - infra.]
  • Anthony Cronin, ‘James Stephens: The Gift of the Gab’, in Heritage Now: Irish Literature in the English Language (Dingle: Brandon 1982), pp.147-55.
  • Steven Putzel, ‘James Stephens‘s Paradoxical Dublin’, in The Irish Writer and the City, ed. Maurice Harmon (Gerrards Cross 1984), pp.103-14.
  • Steven Putzel, ‘Portraits of Paralysis: Stories by Joyce and Stephens,’ Colby Library Quarterly, 20: 4 (Dec. 1984), pp.199-205 [available online].
  • Léon Ó Bróin, Protestant Nationalists in Revolutionary Ireland (1985), p.129 [see extract].
  • John Cronin, ‘James Stephens, The Crock of Gold’, in The Anglo-Irish Novel, Vol. II (Belfast: Appletree Press 1990), pp.47-60.
  • Brigit Bramsbäck: ‘James Stephens and Paris: Insight [...] from Letters to Thomas Bodkin’, in Ireland and France - A Bountiful Friendship: Essays in Honour of Patrick Rafroidi, ed. Barbara Hayley & Christopher Murray (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1992), pp.93-106 [being an enl. vers. of Bramsback, ‘James Stephens: Dublin-Paris-Return’, in Colby Library Quarterly, ed. D. Archibald (March 1961), pp.21-224.
  • [...]
  • Michael F. Hart, ‘The Sign of Contradiction: Joyce, Yeats, and “The Tables of the Law”’, in Colby Library Quarterly, 30: 4 (Dec. 1994), pp.237-42.
  • Werner Huber, ‘Towards a “Comédie Humaine of Ireland” The Politics of James Stephens’s Early Novels’, in Troubled Histories, Troubled Fictions: Twentieth-century Anglo-Irish Prose, ed. Theo d’ Haen, José Lanters [The Literature of Politics and the Politics of Literature, Vol. 4] (Amsterdam & Atlanta, GA: Rodopi 1995), pp.95-104 [see extract].
  • Joseph Lennon, ‘James Stephens’s Diminutive National Narratives: Imagining an Irish Nation Based on the “Orient”’, in The Comparatist [‘Postcolonial Theory and Irish Literature’ - Special Issue, guest ed., Michael R. Molino], Vol. XX [Virginia Commonwealth Univ.] (May 1996), pp.62-81 [available at JSTOR - online; see extract].
  • William Sayers, ‘Molly’s Monologue and the Old Woman’s Complaint in James Stephens’s The Crock of Gold’, in James Joyce Quarterly, 36: 3 (Spring 1999), pp.640-50; available at JSTOR - online].
  • [...] Anne MacCarthy, ‘James Stephens’s Personal Selection from Collected Poems (1926)’, in Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 97: 387 [Views of Ireland] (Autumn 2008), pp.299-310 [on a copy of CP rep. Nov.1926 ded. to Rosemary Langton Douglas with Stephens’ favourite poems marked in the contents list by him.]
  • Derek John, ‘James Stephens (1880-1950)’, in The Green Book: Writings on Irish Gothic, Supernatural and Fantastic Literature, 12 [Swan River Press] (Samhain 2018), pp.80-88 [see extract].
  • I. A. Williams, Bibliographies of Modern Authors: J. C. Squires and James Stephens (Folcroft 1922), and Do. [facs. rep.] (1973) [ltd. edn. 100 copies]
  • Birgit Bramsbäck, James Stephens: A Literary and Bibliographical Study [Upsala Irish Studies, No. & and Cambridge, MA] (Lundequist and Harvard University Press 1959); Do. (Folcroft Lib. Eds. 1973), 209pp. [see details]; and Do. (Philadelphia, PA: R. West 1977), 209pp.
See references in Richard Ellmann, James Joyce (OUP 1959) [cp.1,930]; introductions to The Charwoman’s Daughter, by Hilary Pyle (London: Sceptre Books 1966) and Augustine Martin (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1972).

Bibliographical details
Birgit Bramsbäck, James Stephens: A Literary and Bibliography Study (Folcroft Lib. Eds. 1973), 209pp., ill. [1p. pl., front.]. Photo port. courtesy Lady Glenavy. CONTENTS: Manuscript material of James Stephens work, except letters; Unpublished letters; Separate publications of James Stephens; Books containing publications by Stephens; Contributions by JS to periodicals and Newspapers; Biography and Criticism; addenda; chronological table of separate publications; lists of newspapers and periodicals; BBC recordings; index. [See extract.]

Note: Lady Glenavy, wife of the Free State senator, was formerly Miss Beatrice Elvery and a graduate of the Dublin Metropolitan College of Art.

Patricia McFate, Writings of James Stephens (London: Macmillan; NY: St. Martin’s 1979), xiv, 183pp. [chaps. Stephens: the Man, the Writer, the Enigma [1-22]; The Dance of Life [23-57]; The Quest That Destiny Commands [58]; Make it Sing/Make it New [88 - see extract]; The Art and Craft of Prose [120]; The Marrriage of Contraries [142] Notes and References; Index of works by James Stephens [173]; General Index [178]. (Available at Springer and copied here as pdf; also at Google Books - online; accessed 25.10.2020.)

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See separate file [ infra ]

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See separate file [ infra ]

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Stephen Brown, Ireland in Fiction (Dublin: Maunsel 1919), lists The Charwoman’s Daughter (1912); The Crock of Gold (1912); Here are Ladies (1913); The Demi-Gods (1914).

NY Public Library (USA) - James Stephens collection of papers, 1908-1939 [bulk 1911-1938]: This is a synthetic collection consisting of manuscripts, typescripts, correspondence, notebooks from 1911 to 1917, financial documents, portraits, and pictorial works. The manuscripts include holograph poems, stories, essays, criticism, and other material, some of which was published in “Adventures of Seumas Beg” or in his “Collected poems.” The typescripts include emended drafts of stories, poems, and miscellaneous notes for works. The correspondence includes letters from the author, dating from 1910 to 1935, to Warren Barton Blake, Thomas Bodkin, Padraic Colum, Baron Dunsany, Lady Gregory, W. T. H. Howe, Sir Edward Howard Marsh, Clement King Shorter, and others. There are also letters relating to the author, dating from 1913 to 1939, between various correspondents including W. T. H. Howe, George William Russell, and others. There are letters to Stephens from Claud Lovat Fraser, James Joyce, Stephen MacKenna, John Masefield, George Moore, George William Russell, May Sarton, and W. B. Yeats, dating from 1916 to [1938]. The bulk of the materials was formerly owned by W. T. H. Howe. There are also materials from Padraic Colum, Crosby Gaige, Sir Edward Howard Marsh, John Quinn, and Anne J. Smith [Annie Smith]. Arranged as MSS and typescripts; Correspondence; Financial Document; and Portraits. (Available at NYPB - online; accessed 26.10.2020.)

Mark Storey, Poetry and Ireland since 1800: A Source Book (1988), pp.178-88, reprints ‘The Outlook for Literature with Special Reference to Ireland’, from Century Magazine (1922).

Georgian Poetry 1911-1912 (The Poetry Bookshop MCMXVIII [1918]), incls. poems by Stephens, viz., ‘In the Poppy Field’; ‘In the Cool of the Evening’; ‘The Lonely God’ [all from The Hill of Vision]. Note: edn. printed by W H Smith with title facing ‘published December, 1912’.

Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2; selects from The Hill of Vision “Light-O’-Love”; from Songs of the Clay, “The Ancient Elf”; from Collected Poems, “The Snare”, “A Glass of Beer”, “I Am a Writer”; also, extracts from The Crock of Gold (Bk. 1, Chap. VII); and Hunger (1918), based on the Lock-Out Strike of 1913. REFS & REMS, 521, 781, 1010, 1023, 1025, 1026, 1220; 1219, BIOG, WORKS & CRIT.

Booksellers & Libraries

Hyland Books (Cat. 214) lists The Crock of Gold [first illustrated edn.] (1922), ill. b Wilfred Jones [Hyland 214]; another edn. 1926, ills. in colour and decorative headings and tailpieces by Thomas Mackenzie; Deirdre, Do., French trans. (1947); another edn. (NY 1970), ills. Nonny Hogrogian

Library of Herbert Bell, Belfast, holds Green Branches (London 1917)); Irish Fairy Tales, ill. Arthur Rackham (London 1920); The Charwoman’s Daughter (London 1912); Where There are Ladies (London 1913); In The Land of Youth (London 1914); The Demi-Gods (London 1914); The Adventures of Seamus Beg (London 1916); The Insurrection in Dublin (Dublin 1916); Insurrections (London 1917); Reincarnations (London 1918); The Hill of Vision (London 1922); Deirdre (London 1923); The Crock of Gold (London 1923); The Crock of Gold (London 1926); Etched in Moonlight (London 1928); The Outcast (London: Faber & Faber, 1929), col. fp. by Althea Willoughby; Strict Joy (London 1931); Kings & The Moon (London 1938).

Belfast Public Library holds Adventures of Seumus Beg (1915); The Charwoman’s Daughter (1912); Collected Poems (1912); Crock of Gold (1913 [Edn.?]); Deirdre (1923); Here Are Ladies (1913); Hill of Vision (1912); Insurrection in Dublin (1919); Irish Fairy Tales (1920); Kings and the Moon (1938); The Outcast (n.d.).

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The Crock of Gold (1912) is an amalgam of existential whimsy, theosophy and folk-tale with a cast of leprechauns, talking animals, the god Angus Óg as well as two philosophers married to the Grey Woman of Dun Goftin and the Thin Woman, ending with a magnificent hosting of the Sidhe. The story begins when Meehawl MacMurrachu’s skinny old cat kills a robin redbreast on the roof one day, thus setting in motion a long and peculiar chain of events since the robin is the particular bird of the Leprecauns of Gort na Gloca Mora, causing them to retaliate by stealing Meehawl’s wife’s washing-board - whereupon Meehawl turns to the Philosopher who lives in the centre of Coilla Doraca (a pine-wood) for advice on how to find it. The chain of events leads on further until Angus Óg, the god, becomes involved and ends up marrying Caitilin, the daughter of a local farmer. Stephens returned to this mythological formula though handling it more effectively in The Demi-Gods (1914). [Notes in part from Fantastic Fiction website, online; accessed 20.08.09.)

W. B. Yeats: Yeats’s personal library, now held in the NLI (Dublin) contains copies of The Hill of Vision (MS 40,568 / 231; O’Shea Cat. 2002: 6 shts); Reincarnations (MS 40,568 / 232; O’Shea Cat. 2004: 2 shts).

James Stephens and James Joyce

James Joyce (1): Joyce envisaged when they met that he might complete Finnegans Wake; but see Stephen’s opinion of Joyce on the publication Dubliners, to the effect that “we in Dublin knew the poet to be the real Joyce”]. In James Stephens’s view, reported in Ellmann’s biography, ‘Anna Livia Plurabelle is the greatest prose ever written by a man (James Joyce [1959; rev. 1984], p.617; quoted in John Bishop, The Book of the Night 1989 [q.p.].)

James Joyce (2): Joyce translates “St Stephen’s Green” into French, German, Latin, Norwegian and Italian to celebrate his joint-fiftieth anniversary with Stephens in May 1932; further, ‘He hoped to have Stephens translate it into Irish, but Stephens did not know the language well enough’ (Ellmann, James Joyce, 1959; 1965 Edn., p.668.) Ellmann quotes Stephen’s ‘modest poem’ and asserts that it ‘scarcely demanded such linguistic virtuosity’: ‘The wind stood up and gave a shout. / He whistled on his fingers and // Kicked the withered leaves about / And tumbed the branches with his hand // And said he’d kill and kill and kill / And so he will and so he will.’ (Ibid., ftn.)

James Joyce (3) - letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver [following her dismissal of FW as ‘wasting [your] genius’]: ‘As regards that book itself and its future completion, I have asked Miss Beach to get into closer relations with James Stephens. [...] He is a poet and Dublin born. Of course he would never take a fraction of the time or pains I take but so much the better for him and for me and possibly for the book itself. If he consented to maintain three or four points which I consider essential and I showed him the threads he could finish the design. JJ and S (the colloquial Irish for John Jameson and Son’s Dublin whiskey) would be a nice lettering under the title. it would be a great load off my mind.’ (Letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver, 20 May 1927.) Further: ‘The combination of his name from that of mine and my hero in [A Portrait] is strange enough. I discovered yesterday, through enquiries made in Paris, that he was born in Dublin on 2 February 1882.’ (Letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver, 31 May 1927; given in Peter Chrisp, “Happy Birthday, Mr Joyce”: Wake Blog dated 2 Feb. 2014- online; accessed 24.09.2020.)

Further - Chrisp writes: ‘He spent a week in November (1929) explaining to James Stephens the whole plan of Finnegans Wake. Stephens promised him 'if I found it was madness to continue, in my condition, and saw no other way out, that he would devote himself heart and soul to the completion of it.’ (Letter to HSW, Nov. 1927; quoted in Chrisp, op. cit.)

SignedS”: ‘The attribution of “The Greatest Miracle”, signed “S” in the United Irishman (16 Sept. 1905), to Stephens is a canard: Seumas O’Sullivan wrote it and republished it in Essays and Recollections (Dublin: Talbot Press, 1944), pp.141-43.’ (See Vivian Mercier, ‘John Eglinton as Socrates: A Study of “Scylla and Charybdis”’, in James Joyce: An International Perspective, ed. Suheil Bushrui & Bernard Benstock, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1982, p.66, n.)

Austin Clarke reports in A Penny in the Clouds (Chap. 3) that Stephen McKenna ‘taught Irish to James Stephens, and to his enthusiasm and help we owe Reincarnations [1918].’

F. R. Higgins told Austin Clarke how he mistook James Stephens for a bundel of rags in the wind as he walked through Rathgar, drowned in an outsized French cavalry officer’s cloak.

Portraits: oil portrait by Patrick Tuohy, now in the National Gallery of Ireland, shows him in his ‘candle-extinguisher’ coat; an early portrait was made by Estelle Solomons, while a third, by William Rothenstein, is in the possession of Iris Wise, who holds the copyright of his works. Solomons was a neighbour with a studio in the flat above him on Brunswick St. (see Hilary Pyle, Estelle Solomons, Patriot Portrait, 1966). The Rothenstein portrait of Stephens was lent to the Irish Portraits Exhibition in 1965.

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James Stephens - A Chronology (I)

Given in Patricia McFate, ed., The Uncollected Prose of James Stephen, ed. Patricia McFate (1983), Vol. II.
—McFate, ed., Uncoll. Prose of James Stephens (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983), pp.vii-viii - available as download; accessed 26.09.2020.

James Stephens - A Chronology (II)

1880 9 Feb.; possible date of birth of James Stephens in Dublin.
1882 (2 February) Date of birth used by Stephens [informed his children of this date before his acquaintance with James Joyce].
1886–96 Meath Protestant Industrial School for Indigent Boys.
1896 Clerk for Mr Wallace, a solicitor.
1901 Clerk for Reddington & Sainsbury, solicitors; Member of Dawson St. Gymnastic Team which wins the Irish Shield.
1906 Clerk-typist for T. T. Mecredy & Son, solicitors.
1907 Regular contribs. to Sinn Féin [over 80 pieces in during 1907-11]; a step-daughter, Iris, b. 14 June, soon after calling her mother Cynthia is wife [Millicent Josephine Gardiner Kavanagh; 22 May 1882–18 Dec. 1960); meets George “Æ” Russell.
1909 Insurrections [poetry]; appears in two productions of The Shuiler’s Child by Seumas O’Kelly’s play (Theatre of Ireland Co.); a son, James Naoise, b. 26 Oct.
1910 Appears in The Spurious Sovereign by Gerald Macnamara (Theatre of Ireland); assoc. with David Houston, Thomas MacDonagh, and Padraic Colum in The Irish Review (March 1911-Nov. 1914).
1911 Appeared in Bairbre Ruadh by Pádraic Ó Conaire; his own The Marriage of Julia Elizabeth produced by Theatre of Ireland.
1912 The Charwoman’s Daughter serialised in The Irish Review and then issued by Talbot [recte Maunsel]; pub. The Crock of Gold [fiction; The Hill of Vision [poetry].
1913 Here Are Ladies [short fiction]; and Five New Poems; commissioned by The Nation (London) to write a series of short stories; moved to Paris; The Marriage of Julia Elizabeth revived at the Hardwicke Street Theatre; The Crock of Gold awarded Polignac Prize.
1914 The Demi-Gods.
1915 Songs from the Clay and The Adventures of Seumas Beg/The Rocky Road to Dublin; elected Unestablished Registrar of the National Gallery of Ireland.
1916 Green Branches [poetry]; The Insurrection in Dublin.
1918–24 Appointed Registrar of the National Gallery of Ireland.
1918 Reincarnations.
1919 m. Cynthia on death of her husband, 14 May (London).
1920 Irish Fairy Tales; The Wooing of Julia Elizabeth [formerly The Marriage of Julia Elizabeth] produced by the Dublin Drama League at the Abbey Th.; underwent surgery for for gastric ulcer.
1922 Arthur Griffith: Journalist and Statesman.
1923 Deirdre.
1924 Little Things, and In the Land of Youth; Deirdre wins Medal for Fiction at the Aonach Tailteann Festival; resigns from the National Gallery.
1925 A Poetry Recital, Danny Murphy and Christmas in Freelands; two lecture tours in the USA; settled in Kingsbury, London.
1926 Collected Poems.
1927 Became friendly with James Joyce.
1928 Etched in Moonlight and On Prose and Verse; made a BBC broadcast; lectured at the Third International Book Fair in Florence.
1929 Julia Elizabeth: A Comedy in One Act; The Optimist, and The Outcast [Faber’s Ariel pamphlets, ill. Althea Willoughby).
1930 Theme and Variations.
1931 How St Patrick Saves the Irish; Stars Do Not Make a Noise, and Strict Joy [poetry].
1937 Began regular series of BBC broadcasts; accidental death of his son Naoise, 24 Dec.
1938 Kings and the Moon [poetry].
1940 Moved to Woodside Chapel in Gloucestershire.
1942 Awarded a British Civil List Pension.
1945 Returned to London.
1947 Awarded honorary DLitt by Trinity College, Dublin.
1950 Final BBC broadcast; d. Eversleigh, 26 Dec. [St. Stephen’s Day].
Note: The above chronology is closely based on that given in the Wikipedia entry on the writer - online; accessed 03.08.2020. See below the Chronology given in The Uncollected Prose of James Stephen, ed. Patricia McFate (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983), Vol. II, pp.[vii-]viii, as infra.

Crosby Gaige: The publisher of Julia Elizabeth is the subject of an article in by Colin Smyth in The Yeats Annual: ‘At Cerf’s suggestion, he [Gaige] had started his publishing house in 1927, asking leading writers to provie him with original works that he could be provduced in limited editions, usually signed by their authors whom he paid handsomely. Before the crash in 1929 which wiped out his $5m. fortune, he had produced twenty-two titles, whose authors in order of publication, included Liam O’Flaherty (two books), Siegfried Sassoon, A.E. (George William Russell), Richard Aldington, James Joyce, Humbert Wolfe, Joseph Conrad, Walter de la mare, Carl Sandburg, Virginia Woolf, Lytton Strachey, Thomas Hardly, James Stephens, George Moore, and, lastly, W. B. Yeats. / Although Yeats’s The Winding Stair was the last title to be produced by Gaige - the publication programme was taken over by the Fountain Press, distribution continuing through Random House - it was by no means the end of Mr Gaige. Such was the esteem that he was held in by his friends that, following his financial ruin, those who were more fortunate tha he (such as Raoul Fleischmann, owner of The New Yorker, kept him in the manner to which he was accustomed for the rest of his life, and he even produced some further hits, such as Samson Raphaelson’s Accent on Youth (1934,229 performances). While he seemed perpetually short of cash, he never went without the best food and wines [...].’ (Smythe, ‘Crosby Gaige and W. B. Yeats’s The Winding Stair (1929), in Yeats Annual, No 13 (Palgrave Macmillan; 1998), pp.317-28; p.318 [available at Springer - online; accessed 11.10.2020.]

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