William Carleton: 1794-1869

LifeWorksCriticismCommentaryQuotationsReferencesNotes

See Short Chronology, attached.
Life
1794: b. 20 Feb. 1794 [Shrove Tuesday; bapt. Liam Ó Cathalain], in Prillisk townland [formerly Prollusk, var. Prolusk], nr. Clogher, in the Clogher Valley, Co. Tyrone; youngest of 14 children - 7 sons and 7 dgs. of whom 6 died before he was born - son of a small farmer, native speaker, and accomplished story-teller, and Mary [née Kelly], a gifted Irish singer; experienced arms-searching raids on house by militia (instigated by false report connected with toy gun given to Carleton by a neighbour, Sam Nelson), in which a sister was prodded in the side with a bayonet; first went to school with Pat Frayne (“Matt Kavanagh” in the stories), in Towney [viz., Tonagh, Co. Tyrone]; and afterwards at Skelgy, before moving to a ed. at a barn-school run by Mrs. Dumont (returned from France); later again ed. at another conducted by a failed priest ‘who should have been closely confined in a lunatic asylum’ [Charles McGoldrick and prob. the ‘classical blockhead […] cruel and hypocritical to an extent which I have never yet seen equalled’, mentioned elsewhere than in the Autobiography]; attended a hedge-school run by one O’Beirne in Findramore on family’s removal to Nurchasy; family moves once again, this time to Springtown, a farm with 16 acres, 1808 - - the house being still extant today;
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1805: suffers serious wound in foot from a ‘snake’ [sheet iron trap] during orchard-robbery, aetat. 15; risks his life crossing dangerous weir; experiences ‘greatest love event of [his] life’ at Tulnavert, in five-year long passion for Anne Duffy, dg., of the miller of Augher; death of Carleton Snr., from pneumonia; sets out as a ‘poor scholar’ for Munster, supposedly with the wastrel Pat McArdle but ultimately alone after the failed extraction of money from Carleton’s family by the latter, and turns back at Granard on dreaming of a raging bull; warmly greeted by his family and participates in convivial life of community for some time thereafter; rejoins Pat Frayne’s school as teacher in premises supplied by Andy Morrow until Frayne returns to Connaught when his house is taken by one Robin Young on marrying Morrow’s niece Kitty; encounters printed novels in the form of a single vol. of Tom Jones and Amoranda, or the Reformed Coquette, a pamphlet-novel; reading chapbooks incl. The Arabian Nights, The Life of Edward Lord Herbert, and Defoe’s History of the Devil; attends a school run by Rev. John Keenan, a Catholic priest, classical teacher and a newly-discovered cousin of Carleton [err. related to the parish priest in Springtown], then estab. at Glasslough, Co. Monaghan [land owned by the Leslies of Castle Leslie]; stays with the McCarrons (maternal relatives) at Derrygola while attending that school, 1814-16; witnesses “The Day of the Great Fight” [i.e., a faction fight]; gets sworn in as a Ribbonman at a dance; visits Lough Derg as a pilgrim, later the subject of his first story, “A Pilgrimage to Patrick’s Purgatory” (1828); robbed by one Nell McCallum, a woman engaged in ‘carrying illegitimate children up to the Foundling Hospital in Dublin’; the Carleton family ‘very much reduced’ after death of Carleton Snr., 1810; even more so with the illness and hypochondria of his br. James; family effectively dissolved by eviction, surrendering furniture to the landlord;
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1815: Carleton throws half-hundredweight over a mill beam in contest with Frank Farrell, aetat. 21 [1815]; enjoined by his br. Michael to ‘learn a trade’; resides with an uncle while notionally a stone-mason’s apprentice though actually attending dancing school at Kilnahushogue (run by “Buckramback”, in the stories); leaps Clogher Karry (‘my greatest feat’); moves to home of his br.-in-law Roger Hacket; reads Gil Blas by Alain-René Lasage [in Smollett’s tran.] by chance while living there and acquired a passion for adventure; leaves in indignation at accusations of indolence and walks to Castleblayney (‘going upon the world’, à la Gil Blas); lodges with Fr. Edward MacArdle, a former friend, now PP at Killaney, Co. Louth, near the scene of “Wildgoose Lodge”, location of the ‘dreadful tragedy which had occurred the previous year’ (i.e., 1817); sees the body of Paddy Divann [Divaun, in text] hanged with 20 others, and still hanging in chains under a cautionary guard at Corcreagh, Co. Louth, [Aug.] 1818; takes post as tutor to family of the ‘brutally-tempered’ Piers [Pierce] Murphy, nr. Corcreagh, for 12 guineas a year; meets the blind piper Gaynor in a nearby public house and a another called Cassidy, br. of a tenant of Murphy [called ‘bagpipes’]; enjoys triumphant reputation as linguist and dancer in the neighbourhood; spends his 3 guineas quarter salary freely and surrenders his post with Murphy, whom he knocks down when insulted and left unpaid; travels to Dundalk on board a hearse and seeks post as usher from Rev. Keenan, now running a school there; finds post occupied ably by one Bernard McKenna and is advised by Keenan to seek work as a labourer; leaves Dundalk for Dublin; halts at boarding-house in Drogheda and is deprived of his shirt by way of fee; sells his handkerchief at the docks for two shillings ‘by subscription’ and soon after raised 8/6d from Ribbonmen by use of a secret sign; his fee to the landlady paid by a waitress (3/9d.); proceeded to Dublin as tutor, arriving in 1819 with 2s. 9d in his pocket; claimed to have spent his first nights sharing lodgings on “Dirty Lane” with beggars; sought work as an animal stuffer (using potato and meal for stuffing); applied to join a regiment addressing his application to the colonel in Latin; took teaching work in a Mr. Kane’s Academy; found work at Erasmus Smith schools in Dublin and Mullingar; m. Jane Anderson, a Protestant 1822 [1820 ac. Kiely, 1947)]; offered his services to Robert Peel to combat Emancipation and Catholicism in Ireland;
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1828: taken up by Caesar Otway [q.v.] as contrib. to The Christian Examiner and Church of Ireland Gazette, ed. by Otway & Rev. Dr. Singer, 1828-31; Otway accepted his “A Pilgrimage to Patrick’s Purgatory” for publication in The Examiner (April-May 1828), signed ‘W’ [viz., his early pseud. “Wilton”]; also contrib. “A Broken Oath” and “Father Butler”, serialised in the Examiner (Aug.-Dec. 1828), and telling of a young man forced into the priesthood by superstitious parents having been cured of an illness by the sinister “Father A-”; contrib. “Denis O’Shaughnessy Going to Maynooth” to Examiner (1831 - his last offering to the editors; William Curry issued Father Butler [&] The Lough Dearg Pilgrim (1829), combining two stories from The Christian Examiner [the latter being revised to exclude material imported by Otway]; further stories compiled as Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1830) - ‘two unpretentious volumes written by a peasant’s son’ - published anonymously by Curry, to immediate acclaim; a second series appearing in 1833 and was equally acclaimed; a ‘new edition’, the last to be revised by Carleton and consequently ‘definitive’, appeared in 23-part monthly pamphlets throughout Aug. 1842-June 1844, priced at a shilling each (excepting double-numbers in July 1843 and June 1844 coinciding with the end of each volume), and overlapping with the publication of the book in two elaborately-bound volumes, first and second respectively in late 1843 and early 1844, being taken from the same plates; prefaced by an autobiographical and discursive “Introduction” by the author, and illustrated by engraved illustrations plates by Phiz, Subson, Wrightson, Franklin, MacManus, Lee, and Gilbert; eleven impressions followed up to 1870; other stories appeared in Tales of Ireland (1834), published by Duffy in his Parlour Library of Ireland; undertook a walking tour in N. Wales with Samuel Ferguson, 1836; wrote Fardorougha the Miser (1839), a novel first serialised in Dublin University Magazine, 1837-38; contributed to The Dublin Family Magazine; The National Magazine; The Dublin University Review and Quarterly; The Citizen; the Irish Penny Journal (from 1844), and The Independent; commenced writing for The Nation, whose 7th issue contradicted (at his request) the rumour that he was writing the whole journal;
 
 
1845: issued Art Maguire, or the Broken Pledge (1845), a temperance novel inspired by Fr. Theobald Mathews’s campaign - especially against poteen; writes Parra Sastha, or The History of Paddy Go-Easy and His Wife, Nancy (1845), for James Duffy in nine days - a tale of self-improvement in which the title-character takes stock of his own failings and becomes an industrious and persevering farmer; French translation pub. in L’univers (ed. Louis Veuillot); issues Rody the Rover, or The Ribbonman (1845), a counsel against agrarian violence featuring an agent provocateur in the title role - the preceeding three in Duffy’s Parlour Library; issues Valentine M’Clutchy the Irish Agent (1845) and offered it first for serialisation to The Nation, Davis preferring to see it appear immediately as a book; criticises spirit of Orangeism and features Solomon M’Slime, Darby O’Drive, the Rev. Mr. Lucre, and Fr. Roche - a sympathetic port. of a priest; travelled to England, where he is living at the outbreak of the Great Famine; issues The Black Prophet, based on the earlier famines of 1817 and 1822, first serially in eight parts (Dublin University Magazine, 1846), and afterwards in book-form (1847), with a dedication to Lord Russell rebuking him for his policies towards Ireland; revisited Clogher, in company with John Birney, Lisburn solicitor and Clogher landlord, 1846-47; meets Thomas Carlyle, 1847; applied for a Govt. pension in with a petition signed by Maria Edgeworth, inter al. - claiming on his own behalf, ‘I have risen up from a humble cottage and described a whole people’;
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1848: received Civil List Pension of £200 under the administration of Lord John Russell, 1848 - following a petition signed by many contemporary notables incl. Provost of TCD and President of Maynooth (Dr. Daniel Murray - who also wrote on Carleton in the Edinburgh Review), along with Henry Montgomery and Henry Cooke, Colonel Blacker and Charles Gavan Duffy; Carleton attacked in a leader of the Dublin Evening Mail (3 July 1848) - his unprinted letter of defence disowning any political affiliation being later published in Donoghue’s Life; Lady Wilde, Isaac Butt, and Maria Edgeworth; wrote The Tithe Proctor (1849), urging the tithe-system drove Catholics to support the Ribbonmen; denounced the spirit of 1848 as ‘juvenile revolution’, and satirised the Young Irelanders in The Squanders of Castle Squander (‘big with the hopes of a successful revolution [...] they attacked a police barrack, and were defeated in a cabbage patch’; quarrelled with Curry’s successor William M’Glashan, 1850, then descending into final ill-health; took his later work to London publishers such as Saunders & Oakley, Ward & Lock, and Hope; issues Willy Reilly and His Dear Cooleen Bawn (1855), his most popular production, first serialised in London Independent and reaching over 40 editions - the 40th edn. appearing in 1878; later spelt Colleen (e.g., Routledge 1904) and filmed in 1920 as the first production of the Film Company of Ireland (dir. John MacDonagh); issues Redmond, Count O’Hanlon the Irish Rapparee (1862), his last full-length writing, first serialised in Duffy’s Hibernian Magazine during 1860; issues The Red-haired Man’s Wife (of disputed authorship), serialised in Carlow College Magazine during 1870; last works, The Black Baronet (1857), The Evil Eye (1860) and The Double Prophecy (1862), all held to reveal a sharp decline in power; Traits and Stories remained perennially popular and ran to 50 edns. before his death;
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1869: d. Jan. 1869, at Sandford, Co. Dublin; bur. in Mount Jerome Cemetery off the Main Ave., under a miniature obelisk raised ‘to mark the place wherein rest the remains of one whose memory needs neither graven stone nor sculptured marble to preserve it from oblivion’ (restored in 1989); his wife Jane subsequently buried there also; his autobiography (2 vols.), in which he writes that ‘nothing but the strictest and most conscientious truth will cause many who are now alive to reset uncomfortable in their beds’ - was left unfinished and afterwards issued by D. J. O’Donoghue (Downey 1896), having received the manuscript from Carleton’s sisters; an oil portrait by J. J. Slattery, held in the National Gallery of Ireland, was said by his widow to be ‘the most truthful one’; characterised by Yeats as ‘the greatest novelist of Ireland by right of the most Celtic eyes that ever gazed from under the brown of a storyteller’ in Stories from Carleton (1889) - a collection that drew fire from the Nation; an Annual William Carleton Summer School has met at Corick House - itself cited in Carleton’s writings - in the shadow of Knockmany, Co. Tyrone, since 1992; a Carleton Newsletter is published at Florida University; a son, William, emigrated to Australia. ODNB JMC DIW DIB DIH DIL MKA RAF NCBE SUTH FDA DUB OCIL

See “Four Portraits of William Carleton” - RICORSO Library > Gallery
- attached

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Works
Separate file [infra].

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Criticism
Chief studies by Barbara Hayley
  • “William Carleton in Text and Context: A Comparative Study of Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry”, 2 vols. (University of Kent 1977), 1147pp. [doct. dissertation; electronic version online].
  • A Bibliography of the Writings of William Carleton ([Gerrards Cross] 1985), 241pp. [contains Gen. Intro.; Bibliog. [7-146]; Orig. Periodical Contributions [147-66]; Subsequent Printings in periodicals and anthologies [167-80]; Translations [180-90]; Criticism [191-224]; Libraries with significant holdings [225-28]; Index [299-41].
  • Carleton’s Traits and Stories and the Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Tradition (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983), xiv, 432pp.
  • with Enda McKay, Three Hundred Years of Irish Periodicals [Association of Irish Learned Journals] (Mullingar: Lilliput Press 1987), 146pp. [see details]
  • Preface to Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, 2 vols. [facs. rep. of 1843-44 Edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1990).

Query: Hayley, [ed.,] William Carleton Bibliography (Dublin: Wolfhound Press 1982) [pub. 29 Sept. 1983 acc. Amazon].

Note that Hayley has devised a reference code for all editions of the works by title and number/letter - hence Traits and Stories [… &c.] New Edition (Dublin: Curry 1842) is listed in footnotes as T & S [15a]. Here the date 1842 is taken from the 23 separate parts issued during 1842-44, whereas the book publication in two volumes which broadly overlapped with this method of production and shared the same printer’s sheets with it - and hence the same pagination - actually appeared in 1843-44, and is commonly referred to by these dates in the bibliographical literature at large - i.e., Traits and Stories (1843).

Bibliographical details
Three Hundred Years of Irish Periodicals, ed. Barbara Hayley & Enda McKay [Association of Irish Learned Journals] (Mullingar: Lilliput Press 1987), 146pp. Contents: Barbara Traxler Brown, ‘Three centuries of journals in Ireland’; Hayley, ‘A reading and thinking nation’; Jean Archer, ‘Science loners’; Caoilfhíonn Nic Pháidín, ‘Na hIris i Gaeilge’; David Dickson, ‘Historical journals in Ireland’; McKay, ‘A century of Irish trade journals, 1860-1960’; Peter Denman, ‘Ireland's little magazines’

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General
  • Patrick Joseph Murray, ‘Traits of the Irish Peasantry’ [review], in The Edinburgh Review, XCVI (Oct. 1852), pp.384-403;
  • W. B. Yeats, Introduction, Stories from Carleton [Camelot Series] (London: Walter Scott 1889) [see extract];
  • W. B. Yeats, ‘William Carleton’ [review of Red-Haired Man’s Wife], in Scots Observer (19 Oct. 1889), p.141 [rep. in Uncollected Prose by W. B. Yeats, ed. John P. Frayne (London: Macmillan 1970), Vol. 1];
  • W. B. Yeats, ‘Carleton as an Irish Historian’, in Nation (11 Jan 1890), p.166 [rep. in Frayne, op. cit., 1970, Vol. 1];
  • W. B. Yeats, ‘Irish National Literature, I: From Callanan to Carleton’, in Bookman (July 1895), p.359 [rep. in Frayne, op. cit., 1970, Vol. 1];
  • W. B. Yeats, ‘William Carleton’ [review of Carleton’s autobiography], in Bookman (March 1896), p.394 [rep. in Frayne, op. cit., 1970, Vol. 1; see also under Mrs. Hoey [her pref. to O’Donoghue, op. cit. 1896, infra];
  • David J. O’Donoghue, The Life of William Carleton: Being His Autobiography and Letters, and an account of his life and writings, from the point at which the autobiography breaks off […], introduced by Mrs Cashel Hoey, 2 vols. (London: Downey & Co. 1896), viii, 362pp.
  • Rose Shaw, Carleton’s Country, with a foreword [preface] by Shane Leslie (Dublin: Talbot Press 1930);
  • John Montague, ‘Tribute to Carleton’, in The Bell (April 1952), pp.13-21 [var. ?‘William Carleton: The Fiery Gift’; see extract].
  • Benedict Kiely, Poor Scholar: A Study of the Works and Days of William Carleton, 1798-1869 (London: Sheed & Ward 1947; Dublin: Talbot 1972), 164pp, and Do., rep. edn. Wolfhound 1997), 208pp. [see extracts];
  • Thomas Flanagan, The Irish Novelists 1800-1850 (Columbia UP 1958) [see extracts];
  • Anthony Cronin, Introduction to The Courtship of Phelim O’Toole: Six Irish Tales, ed. Cronin (1962) [see extracts];
  • Richard Morrison, ‘A Note on William Carleton, in Missouri University Review, 3 (Spring 1965), pp.215-26;
  • Patrick Kavanagh, Preface to The Autobiography of William Carleton [Fitzroy Edition; prev. as The Life of William Carleton, 2 vols., 1896, ed. & extended by D. J. O’Donoghue] (London: MacGibbon & Kee 1968), p.238;
  • Eileen Ibarra-Sullivan, Realistic Accounts of the Irish Peasantry in Four Novels of William Carleton (Univ. of Florida dissert. 1969);
  • Eileen Ibarra [i.e., Ibarra-Sullivan], ‘William Carleton: An Introduction’, in Éire-Ireland, 5, 1 (Spring 1970), pp.81-86;
  • Terence Brown, ‘The Death of William Carleton, 1869’, in Hermathena, CX (1970), pp.81-85;,
  • O. Elizabeth McWhorter Harden, Maria Edgeworth’s Art of Prose Fiction (The Hague: Mouton 1971);
  • Daniel J. Casey, ‘Lough Derg’s Famous Pilgrim’, in Clogher Record, 7, 3 (1971-72), pp.449-79 [argues that Otway wrote the most offensive parts of “A Pilgrimage to Patrick’s Purgatory” in the Christian Examiner];
  • Timothy Webb, intro. to The Black Prophet [rep. of 1847 Belfast edn.] (Shannon: IUP 1972), xix, xvi, 408pp. [i.e., pp.xix-xv];
  • Robert L. Meredith, ‘William Carleton and Charles Lever’, in Carleton Newsletter 3, 2 (1972), pp.11-14;
  • André Boué, ‘William Carleton and the Irish People’, in The Clogher Record, VI, 1 [?1974], pp.66-70;
  • Margaret Chesnutt, Studies in the Short Stories of William Carleton [Gothenberg Studies in English 34] (Goteburg 1976);
  • Eileen Sullivan, ‘William Carleton, Artist and Reality’, in Éire Ireland, 12, 1 (1977), pp.130-40;
  • André Boué, William Carleton 1794-1869, romancier irlandais 1794-1869 (Paris: Publs. de la Sorbonne 1978), xx, 417pp. [thesis of 1973];
  • John Cronin, William Carleton, The Black Prophet’, in The Anglo-Irish Novel: The Nineteenth Century [Vol. I] (Belfast: Appletree Press 1980), pp.83-98;
  • Robert Lee Wolff, William Cartleton, Irish Peasant Novelist: A Preface to His Fiction (NY: Garland Publ. 1980), 156pp.;
  • Alan Warner, ‘William Carleton’, in A Guide to Anglo-Irish Literature (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1981), pp.72-78;
  • Brian Earls, ‘The Carleton Canon: Additions and Substractions’, in Studia Hibernica, 21 (1981), pp.92-127.
  • Barbara Hayley, ‘Carleton’s Traits and Stories and the Nineteenth Century’, in Family Chronicles, ed. Coilin Owens (Dublin: Wolfhound Press 1987), [q.pp.];
  • Anthony Cronin, ‘William Carleton: Idyll and Bloodshed’, in Heritage Now: Irish Literature in English (Dingle: Brandon 1982), pp.37-46;
  • Barbara Hayley, Carleton’s Traits and Stories and the Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Tradition (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983), xiv, 432pp. [Notes, 397ff.; and see Outline Chronology of Traits and Stories edns. derived from same, attached];
  • Eileen A. Sullivan, William Carleton [Twayne English Authors] (Boston: Twayne 1983), 146pp. [1 port.].
  • Barbara Hayley, A Bibliography of the Writings of William Carleton (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1985), 241pp.;
  • Barry Sloan, The Pioneers of Anglo-Irish Fiction, 1800-1850 [Irish Literary Studies 21] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe NJ: Barnes & Noble 1986) - vide chaps: ‘Sketches of Irish Character and Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1830-1833)’ [pp.137-73], ‘Miscellaneous minor fiction and novels by Lover, Carleton and Lever (1834-1844)’ [pp.174-94], and ‘Novels by Mrs Hall, Le Fanu, Lever and Carleton (1845-1850)’ [pp.197-37];
  • Harold Orel, ‘William Carleton: Attitudes toward the English and the Irish’, in Literary Interrelations: Ireland, England and the World, ed. Wolfgang Zach & Heinz Kosok, Vol. III [National Images and Stereotypes] (Tübingen: Guntar Narr Verlag, 1987), pp.85-94;
  • Norman Vance, Irish Literature: A Social History, Tradition, Identity and Difference (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990; rev. edn. 1999) [Chap. 4:] ‘The Literatures of Victorian Ireland, William Carleton and Thomas D’Arcy McGee’;
  • Barbara Hayley, Foreword to William Carleton, Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry [facs. rep. of 1845 edn.; here called definitive] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1979), pp.5-12 [see extracts].
  • Barbara Hayley, Carleton’s Traits and Stories and the Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Tradition (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983), xiv, 432pp.
  • Benedict Kiely, ed., [& intro.] William Carleton, Fardarougha the Miser or the Conflicts of Lisnamona [1839; rep. edn.] (Belfast: Appletree 1993), 228pp.;
  • Margaret [Peggy] O’Brien, ‘William Carleton, The Lough Derg Exile’, in Irish Writing, Exile and Subversion, eds., Paul Hyland & Neil Sammells (London 1991), pp.82-97;
  • Julian Moynihan, ‘William Carleton (1794-1869): The Native Informer’, in Anglo-Irish: The Literary Imagination in a Hyphenated Culture (Princeton UP 1995) [Chap. III], pp.43-47;
  • Chris Morash, ‘William Carleton and the End of Writing’, in Writing the Irish Famine (Clarendon Press 1995), pp.155-97.
  • Declan Kiberd, ‘Confronting Famine: Carleton’s Peasantry’, in Irish Classics (London: Granta 2000), pp.265-86;
  • Brian Donnelly, ‘William Carleton: Novelist of the People’ in Tyrone: History and Society, ed. Charles Dillon & Henry A. Jefferies (Dublin: Geography Publs. 2000) [q.p.];
  • R. F. Foster, ‘Square-built Power and Fiery Shorthand: Yeats, Carleton and the Irish Nineteenth Century’, in The Irish Story: Telling Tales and Making It Up in Ireland (London: Penguin 2001, 2002) [Chap.7], pp.113-26 [see extract].
  • Gordon Brand, ed., William Carleton: The Authentic Voice (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 2006), 205pp. [ills. by Sam Craig; contribs. incl. Marianne Elliot et al.; see review by Catriona MacKernan, attached];
  • Sinéad Sturgeon, ‘Maria Edgeworth, William Carleton, and the Battle for the Spirit of Ireland: The Politics of Poitín’, in Irish Studies Review, 14, 4 (Nov. 2006), pp.431-45;
  • Margaret Kelleher, ‘Prose Writing and Drama in English; 1830-1890 […]’, in Cambridge History of Irish Literature, ed. Kelleher & Philip O’Leary (Cambridge UP 2006), Vol. 1, pp.449-99; pp.455-56 [see extracts];
  • John W. Hurley, Irish Gangs and Stick-Fighting in the Works of William Carleton (Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation, 2001), 314pp., ill. 17pp. b&w ills. [available online];
  • Melissa Fegan, ‘William Carleton in Retrospect: The Irish Prophecy Man’ [chap.], in Literature and the Irish Famine, 1845-1919 (OUP 2002).
  • Marjorie Howes, ‘William Carleton’s literary religion’, in Evangelicals and Catholics in Nineteenth-century Ireland, ed. James H. Murphy (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2005), Chap. 8 [p.106ff.]
  • Peggy O’Brien, Writing Lough Derg: From William Carleton to Seamus Heaney [Irish studies ser.] (Syracuse UP 2006), xxiii, 312pp.
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See also ...
  • A. N. Jeffares, ‘Place, Personality and the Irish Writer’, in Place, Personality and the Irish Writer, ed. Andrew Carpenter (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1977), pp.11-40;
  • Patrick Rafroidi, Irish Literature in English, The Romantic Period, Vol. 1 (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1988) [passim, and bibliography in Vol. 2, pp.95-102];
  • Terence Dooley, The Murders at Wildgoose Lodge: Agrarian Crime and Punishment in pre-Famine Ireland (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2007);
  • Heather Ingman, A History of the Irish Short Story (Cambridge UP 2009) [q.pp.].
  • Melissa Fegan, Literature and the Irish Famine, 1845-1919 (Oxford: Clarendon Press 2002) [espec. Chap. V: ‘William Carleton in Retrospect: The Irish Prophecy Man’].
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Conference news
Melissa Fegan [University of Chester], paper on ‘The Irish Prophecy Man: Folklore and Famine in the Novels of William Carleton’, a paper delivered at a conference on “Ireland in the Nineteenth-century English and Irish novel” held in the Dipartimento di Letterature Comparate, Università Roma Tre and at the Pontificio Università Irlandese, Roma, (12-13 March). The conference was organised by John McCourt of URT [Univ. di Roma - email].

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Commentary
See separate file [infra].

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Quotations
See separate file [infra].

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References

For works of Carleton available in Project Gutenberg, copied from the Collier Edition (NY 1881) with ills. by M. L. Flanery, including a selection edited for Gutenberg by David Widger, see attached.

There is a gallery of portraits of Carleton - including the oil by James Slettery and a photograph of Carleton at 72 - on the CELT Multitext Project in Irish History, online; accessed 18.11.2010.

Justin McCarthy, gen. ed., Irish Literature (Washington 1904), gives an extract from “Shane Fadh’s Wedding”, et al., with much biographical information.

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Stephen Brown, Ireland in Fiction [Pt. I] (Dublin: Maunsel 1919), Father Butler and Lough Derg [sic] Pilgrim, Sketches of Irish Manners (Curry 1829), 302pp [anonymous (recte, pseud. ‘W[ilton]’); virulently anti-Catholic, the latter, for Catholics, blasphemous]; The Poor Scholar, and Other Tales (Dublin: Duffy [1830]), 252pp.; [“Poor Scholar” and eight other stories]; Tales of Ireland [1834], later edn., ill. Brooke [contains ‘Death of a Devotee”, “The Priest’s Funeral”, “Lachlin Murray and the Blessed Candle”, “Neal Malone”, “The Illicit Distiller”; “The Brothers”, “The Dream of a Broken Heart”; Brown singles out the last as pure and noble and calls the rest feeble]; Fardorougha the Miser ([1839] London: Downey; NY: Haverty [n.d.]), 280pp, with a preface by the author and another by D. J. O’Donoghue [chars., Una O’Brien, heroine; Honor O’Donovan; and the original of the miser’s wife modelled on Carleton’s mother]; The Fawn of Springvale, or Jane Sinclair, [with] The Clarionet, and Other Tales, 2 vols. (1841) [includes “Lha Dhu”, and “The Dead Boxer”]; Do., rep. as Jane Sinclair (1849, incl. “The Dark Day”, which is “Lha Dhu” [middle-class life with eulogistic portrait of dissenting minister John Sinclair, Calvinistic and truly charitable]; “Clarionet” and “The Dead Boxer”, printed with “Barney Branagan” (1850); [Parra Sastha, or] Paddy go Easy and His Wife Nancy (Dublin: Duffy [1845]) [prototype of Adventures of Mick M’Quaid, acc. Brown]; Valentine M’Clutchy; or, The Chronicles of Castlecumber [sic] Property (Dublin: Duffy 1845, and edns.), trans. as Chroniques de Chateau Cumber, in L’Univers, 1845; Do., rep. edn., as Valentine McClutchy, The Irish Agent (NY: Garland, 1979), xii, 468pp.; Rody the Rover (Dublin: Duffy 1845) [origin of Ribbonism, the hero and emissary, self-interested rascals, govt. spy denounced]; Tales and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1851) [besides stories in Irish Penny Journal, incl. ‘Fate of Frank McKenna”, “A legend of Knockmany”; “Talbot and Gaynor, the Irish Pipers”, “Moll Roe’s Marriage”, “The Three Wishes”, “Condy Cullen; or, The Irish Rake”, “A Record of the Heart”, “Stories of Second Sight”, “Buckram Back”; favourably reviewed by Davis in The Nation]; Denis O’Shaughnessy Going to Maynooth (1845), Routledge ed. ill. W. H. Brooke, 200pp. [n.d., in Whelan Cat. 32] [‘There is no people bound up so strongly in each other by the ties of domestic life as the Irish”, Carleton]; Art Maguire [1845], also Sadlier edn., 252pp.; [ded. Fr Mathew, and irreproachable from Catholic viewpoint]; The Black Prophet (1847), Laurence & Bullen ed., intro. D. J. O’Donoghue, ill. J. B. Yeats (1899); The Emigrants of Ahadarra (1847), Routledge ed., and NY: Sadleir ed., [n.d.] [exquisite port. of peasant girl; O’Finigan’s half-tipsy eloquence; kindly spirit]; The Tithe-Proctor (Belfast Simm & M’Intyre 1849) [real-event murder of Bolands, written in mood of savage resentment against countrymen, acc. O’Donoghue, a ‘gross accumulation of melodramatic horrors’]; Jane Sinclair [as above]; Tales and Sketches of Irish Life and Character (Dublin 1845), plates by Phiz [orig. ed.]; Tales and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1851) [as above]; The Squanders of Castle Squander, 2 vols. (1852), 326, 311pp. [acc. O’Donoghue, “the latter part [is] acrid political argument’]; Red Hall; or, The Baronet’s Daughter, 3 vols. (London 1852), reissued as The Black Baronet; or, The Chronicles of Ballytrain (Dublin: Duffy 1856], 476pp. [upper-class society tragedy; the scene with a peasant leaving dead family in his famine hut regarded by Barnett Smith in XIXth Century as Carleton’s most dramatic scene]; Alley Sheridan; or, The Runaway Marriage, and other Stories (Dublin 1857), rep. from National Magazine, 1830; The Evil Eye; or, The Black Spectre [rep. edn.] (Dublin: Duffy 1860), ill. Edmund Fitzpatrick, ARHA [‘perilously near ridiculous in style and plot”, acc. O’Donoghue], trans. L’Oeil Mauvais ou Le Spectre Noir (Paris 1865); Redmond O’Hanlon (Dublin: Duffy 1862), 199pp. [Rapparee; from national viewpoint not inspiring]; The Double Prophecy, or Trials of the Heart, 2 vols. (Dublin 1862), rep. from Irish American (NY), and Duffy’s Hibernian Magazine [incl. scene of seduction]; The Silver Acre and Other Tales (Ward, Lock & Co. 1862), contains [3] “The Silver Acre” [John Hogan, clever, goes to drink in Dublin, returns to fiancée Ellen Connor who is dying, reforms]; “The Fair of Emyvale”, “Master and Scholar’]; The Fair of Emyvale - Master and Scholar (London 1870); Amusing Irish Tales, 4th edn. (2 series in one, 1st ser. 1889, 2nd ser. 1890) [‘not to be confused with Traits’ - Brown], of which Ser. 1 contains “Buckram Back, the Country Dancing Master”; “Mary Murray, the Irish Match-maker”; “Bob Pentland, the Irish Smuggler”; “Tom Gressley, the Irish Sennachie”; “Barney M’Haigney, the Irish Prophecy Man”, and ten others (?in part or whole rep. of Tales and Stories, 1851, itself a rep. of Tales and Sketches); The Red-Haired Man’s Wife (Dublin: Sealy, Bryers 1889) [exploits of Leeam [sic] O’Connor, lady-killer; other chars., Hugh O’Donnell, Fenian; Fr Moran, Rev. Brayley, bosom friends; part MS destroyed by fire, missing portions supplied by MacDermott, and published Carlow Coll. Magazine, 1870, acc. O’Donoghue, Life, ii, p.321]; Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, many eds. (e.g. 1 vol., Routledge; 2 vols., demy 8o; NY, Dutton; London: Ward, Lock & Co.), ill. Harvey, Gilbert, “Phiz”, Franklin, MacManus, etc. 424, 432pp.; best ed., O’Donoghue, 4 vols. (Dent 1896, from 1830-33 ed.), incl. the original autograph intro., biographical and critical preface by O’Donoghue, rep. Phiz orig. ills.; contents, “Ned M’Keon”; “Three Tasks”; “Shan Fadh’s Wedding”; “Larry M’Farland’s Wake”; “The Station”; “An essay on Irish Swearing”; “The Battle of the Factions”, “The Midnight Mass”; “the party fight and Funeral”, “The Hedge School”; “The Lough Derg Pilgrim”; “The Donagh; or, The Horse Stealers”, “Phil Purcel, the Pig Driver”; “The Leanhan Shee’ [sic], “The Geography of an Irish Oath”; “The Poor Scholar”; “Wildgoose Lodge”; “Tubber Derg”; “Denis O’Shaughnessy Going to Maynooth”; “Phelim’s Courtship”; and “Neil Malone” [21 titles]. Later Eds. incl. Stories from Carleton, [ed. and] intro. W. B. Yeats (Walter Scott [1889]), xvii, 302pp. [contains ‘the Poor Scholar”, “Tubber Derg”, “Wildgoose Lodge”, “Shane [sic] Fadh’s Wedding”; “The Hedge School”; Also, Carleton’s Stories of Irish Life, intro. Darrell Figgis [Every Irishman’s Library] (Talbot 1918). A work called Anne Cosgrave; or, The Chronicles of Silver Burn, on the topic of Northern religious revivals, and about which remarks by Carleton and O’Donoghue are quoted, is ‘not yet published’. Note: ODNB entry is by Barnett Smith.

 

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Patrick Rafroidi, Irish Literature in English: The Romantic Period, 1789-1850 (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1980), Vol. II, lists Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1st ser. 1830; 2nd ser. 1833; complete edn. in 2 vols.; 1843-44), in which ‘The Lough Derg Pilgrim’; ‘Going to Maynooth’ and ‘The Poor Scholar’ [both novella-length] ‘The Three Tasks’; ‘The Lianhan Shee’; ‘Shane Fadh’s Wedding’; ‘Larry McFarland’s Wake’; ‘Phil Purcel the Pig-Driver’; ‘The Wildgoose Lodge’ [first person narr.], et. al.; ded. [Lord] John Russell, editor of Moore’s Memoirs, Journals and Correspondence (1853-56); The Black Prophet, A Tale of Irish Famine (1847), first published serially in the Dublin University Magazine from May to December, 1846; Tales and Sketches Illustrating the Character, Usages, Traditions, Sports and Pastimes of the Irish Peasantry (1845), a collection of twenty one short prose pieces by William Carleton, including the characters Buckram Back, ‘the Country Dancing Master’, Mary Murray, ‘the Irish Match-Maker’, Tom Gressley, ‘the Irish Sennachie’, and Barney M’Haigney, ‘the Irish Prophecy Man’; all appeared in the Irish Penny Journal, 1840-41; dedicated to Charles Gavan Duffy, editor of The Nation. Three novels written in 1845 for the ‘Parlour Library of Ireland’ series published by James Duffy, and promoted by The Nation, Art Maguire; or, The Broken Pledge (1845), temperance novel [formerly in a shorter version as ‘The Broken Oath’ in Christian Examiner, 1828]; Rody the Rover (1845); Parra Sastha; or, The History of Paddy Go-Easy and His Wife Nancy (1845) [viz, Nancy M’Bride] for James Duffy, publ., to replace Davis’s projected life of Tone.

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day Company 1991), Vol. 1, makes reference to James Duffy in his capacity as Carleton’s publisher at pp.682, 1175, and 1300.

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day Company 1991), Vol. 2, selects The Black Prophet [124-29]; Wildgoose Lodge [873-83]; remarks incl. Douglas Hyde: ‘Carleton’s stories bear witness to the prevalence of the Irish language and traditions in Ulster when he began to write’, from The Necessity of De-Anglicising Ireland …&c (1892), 531; comparing the attack on Knockloftie House in W. H. Maxwell’s Hector O’Halloran with ‘Wildgoose Lodge’ as variants on an Irish gothic theme [W. J. McCormack, ed.] 835; ‘Confessions of a Reformed Ribbonman’ [1830] alias ‘Wildgoose Lodge’ [1833], discussed under the heading, ‘Fact and Fiction’ [ibid., and with ftn ref. to Barbara Hayley, Carleton’s Traits &c, 1983, pp.124-36 for discussion of same], 837-40 [See further Note, infra]; listed as Anglo-Irish novelist by Thomas MacDonagh (1916), 990; Frederick Ryan cites Carleton among others to argue that the language that they found ‘good enough … to sing their love of Ireland in, and preach to Ireland in’ is good enough for us (Dana, 1904), 999; Daniel Corkery, the work of Somerville and Ross lives mostly be English suffrage; while Carleton’s work - written quite obviously under Ascendancy influence - lives by Irish suffrage (1931), 1010; located in tradition of regionalist fiction [Augustine Martin, ed.], 1021; peasant fiction, violence and melodrama [ibid.], 1022. FDA3 selects Autobiography [391-99]. See further under W. J. McCormack, in Commentary, infra. See Also FDA2, Biog. & Criticism [see Life, supra]. Note also FDA2, ftn., 839 [WJ McCormack, ed.], citing three articles in the Journal of the Co. Louth Archael. and Hist. Soc. that sifts material relating to the impact of the attack on Wildgoose Lodge (29 Oct. 1816), viz., T. F. G. Paterson, ‘The Burning of Wildgoose Lodge’, JCLAHS, 12, 2 (1950), pp.159-80; Daniel J. Casey, ‘Carleton in Louth’, in Ibid., 17 2 (1970), pp.97-106; Casey, ‘Wildgoose Lodge, The Evidence and the Lore’, in Ibid., 18, 2 (1974), pp.140-64.

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John Sutherland, ed., Oxford Companion to Victorian Fiction, lists Fardarougha (1839), serialised irregularly in DUM, Feb. 1837-Feb. 1838. ‘Quantity of fiction inferior in lit. quality to Lover and Lever … but cater[ing] less obviously for the mainland English public.’ None of his novels are treated separately in Sutherland.

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Frank Ormsby, ed., Northern Windows: An Anthology of Ulster Autobiography (Belfast: Blackstaff Press 1987), includes extract from Autobiography (here pp.1-12).

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Kevin Rockett, et al., eds., Cinema & Ireland (1988) lists Willy Reilly and his Colleen Bawn (Film Co. of Ireland; dir. John MacDonagh, 1920), 23-9 [based on Carleton novel, Willy Reilly and his Dear Coleen 1855; surprising it got made in view of tension surrounding land cases in Dáil Éireann; Film Co. of Ireland swansong], 30 [suppression of most awkward features of Irish reality in], 38 [ignoring awkward features of Irish history], 43 [Frances MacNamara née Alexander and her partner Brian Magowan, playing].

See also details of the 1920 production at TCD Irish Film website online. - viz., silent, b&2, 90 mins.; dir. MacDonagh; script by Dr. D. A. Moriarty from Carleton’s novel [orth. Colleen] of 1855; cast: Brian Magowan (Willy Reilly), Frances Alexander (Helen Folliard/The Colleen Bawn), Richard Sheridan (Tom the Fool), Seamus MacBlante (Sir Robert Whitecraft), Dermot O’Dowd (Squire Folliard), Barrett McDonnell (the Red Rapparee). Mainly filmed at St. Enda’s Rathfarnham, and in the Pine Forest.

Synopsis: In the mid-1740s in rural Ireland, Squire Folliard is held up by Red Rapparee and his gang. Willy Reilly, a Catholic gentleman, comes on the scene and rescues the squire. A grateful squire brings Willy to his home where he meets and falls in love with the squire’s daughter, Helen, the Colleen Bawn. Red Rapparee tries to kidnap Helen, but he is thwarted again by Willy. The squire opposes the liaison between Helen and Willy because of their differing religions, and seeks to encourage Helen to marry the bigoted, anti-Catholic Sir Robert Whitecraft. Whitecraft intensifies his vendetta against Catholics by burning down his rival’s home. Willy had already placed the property in the care of a friendly Protestant clergyman Reverend Brown, and after the burning of Willy’s home, Brown and another sympathetic Protestant Mr Hastings complain about Whitecraft’s activities to the Lord Lieutenant. He orders that Whitecraft and Red Rapparee be arrested. Meanwhile, Willy and Helen decide to elope, but they are intercepted before they can leave the district. In court, Whitecraft and Red Rapparee are sentenced to death, while Willy, who has been charged with abducting Helen and of stealing her jewels, is sentenced to seven years’ exile on the abduction charge. Thinking that Willy has been sentenced to death, a depressed Helen slides into a melancholic state which is only relieved when Willy returns to Ireland from exile. By then, the squire has accepted Willy as his future son-in-law, and the film ends showing the couple with a baby in the company of the squire. [see at at TCD Irish Film website - online.]

Anthony Slide, Cinema in Ireland (1988), p. 14. The plot concerns the love of a Catholic gentleman for a Protestant heiress. Promotional material at the time of the release comments, ‘The reciprocal acts of goodwill by both Catholics and Protestants throughout the play beautifully illustrates the moral of national brotherhood, and demonstrates the truth, so often forgotten, that may worship their different God at different altars while serving their common country side by side.’ (Quoted from John McDonaghs’ [sic] reminiscences, printed in Cinema Ireland 1895-1976, Dublin Arts Festival 1976, p.11.)

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Library catalogues
British Library
(Cat. 1956) lists 72 Carleton titles including contemporary and posthumous reprints and The Poor Scholar, a study by Benedict Kiely.

University of Ulster Library (Morris Collection) holds The Life of William Carleton being his autobiography and letters, and an account of his life and writings, 2. vols. (Downey & Co. 1896), [ed. and intro.] by D. J. O’Donoghue; Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (1893); The Tithe Proctor (1849); Valentine M’Clutchy (1847). Also, Belfast Central Public Library holds 30 titles.

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University of Ulster (Central Library) holds edns., Traits and Stories (2 vols. 1830; and 3 vols. 1833); Traits and Stories [… &c.] by William Carleton, new ed. with intro. explanatory notes and numerous ills. in wood and steel [Harvey, Phiz, etc.], 2 vols. (NY: Wilson and Hawkins 1862), 427pp. [ends with ‘Phil Purcel’], 430pp. [ends with ‘Neal Malone’], reprinted from another ed., Traits and Stories, 11th complete edn., London: William Tegg 1843), [ill. by Phiz, Harvey, etc.], port. engrav. signed C. Grey Jan. 29 1843/William Teggs [printed]’, 2 vols. 427pp, 430pp.; note also Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry (London: William Tegg 1869), Vol. 1, cited in Margaret O’Brien, ‘William Carleton, the Lough Derg Exile’, in Hyland and Sammells, eds., Irish Writing (1991); Traits and Stories &c. [facs. rep.] (NY: Garland 1979).

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Herbert Bell (Private Library) holds Traits and Stories, 2 vols. (Dublin: O’Curry MDCLXLIII/1843); signed by author, ‘21 Aug. 1844’ and ded. to Mary Duffy[?] held in private library of Herbert Bell, Esq., Belfast. SEE A. P. Graves, who writes that Tennyson corrected his Hiberno-English from Carleton.

Cathach Books 1996-97 lists D. J. O’Donoghue, ed., Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, 4 vols. (London: Dent 1896); Stories of the Irish Peasantry (Dublin 1845), 393pp.; Art Maguire; or, The Broken Pledge: A narrative (Dublin: Duffy n.d.), 254pp.; Tubber Derg, or, The Red Well: Party Fight and funeral, Dandy Kehoe’s Christening, and Other Irish Tales (Dublin: Duffy n.d.), 256pp. [Cathach 1996-97]. Also [QRY], T. S. F. Battersby, Carleton on Parliamentary Elections in Ireland … [&c.] (Dublin: Hodges, Figgis 1892), 419pp.

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Notes
Traits and Stories: Editions of Carleton’s Traits and Stories [ … &c.] are treated as follows in Barbara Hayley’s Foreword to the 1990 Reprint: ‘These [the orig. series of 1830] were followed in 1832 by an equally acclaimed Second Series, and after several reprints and new edns., both series were put together in 1842 for the extravagant and elegant New Edition of which this is a facs. reproduction.’ (Barbara Hayley, Foreword, to Traits and Stories, 1990 Edn., p.11).

Fardorougha the Miser, or The Convicts of Lisnamona (1839), Connor O’Donovan, son of the eponymous character, is deeply in love with Una O’Brien, provoking the jealousy of Bartle Flanagan, a Ribbonman who implicates Connor in an agrarian crime resulting in his transportation to a penal colony to the distress of his parents. (See Answers.com [online; accessed 19.11.2009.)

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Valentine M’Clutchy, the Irish Agent; or, The Chronicles of Castle Cumber (1845): a melodramatic account of M’Clutchy, the dishonest agent of an absentee landlord whose son Phil wants to marry Mary M’Loughlin contrary to her wishes, resulting in a campaign of persecution against her family abetted by Solomon M’Slime, the corrupt attorney who abets M’Clutchy. The novel ends with the assassination of the eponymous villain. (See Answers.com [online; accessed 19.11.2009.)

The Black Prophet: A Tale of Irish Famine (1847): The Dalton family of small farmers is suspected of a murder actually committed by Donnel Dhu, the “prophecy man“ of the title, and the shadow of suspicion which hangs over the Daltons. The novel searingly depicts the effect of starvation and disease, based on Carleton’s memories of the famine of 1817, while Donnel Dhu is modelled on the a type of vagrant in pre-Famine Ireland who took their lore from Pastorini. The work was first published serially in the Dublin University Magazine. (See Answers.com [online; accessed 19.11.2009.)

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The Emigrants of Ahadarra: A Tale of Irish Life (1848): Bryan M’Mahon loves Kathleen Cavanagh but is rejected by her on suspicion of apostasy - a suspicion nurtured by the profligate Hycy Burke who wants her for himself. Hycy’s deceit is revealed to the returning absentee landlord and he is sent abroad in place of the M’Mahons who had seemed more likely to take ship as emigrants from Ireland. (See Answers.com [online; accessed 19.11.2009).

Willy Reilly (1855): note that there is an antecedent chapbook title, The Bonny Irish Boy: Willy Reilly, and The Faithful Irish Hero (Belfast: printed in the year 1813), 8p. [12/16cm.], poetry [copy held in British Library.]

Willy Reilly (1862) - Carleton’s play at the Pavilion Th., [Whitechapel, London]: see mixed playbill for the new historical Irish drama, Willy Reilly and his own dear coleen bawn, by Mr. J. F. O’Neill [var. cooleen]; and, the new historical drama, Whitefriars, or, Claude Duval, the dashing highwayman [by W. Thompson Townsend]. Pavilion Th. proprietor, Mr. John Douglass; Manager, Mr. John Campbell; cast includes Mr. J. F. O’Neill, Mrs. J. F. O’Neill, Mr. C. J. Bird, Mr. W. H. Collings; performed Saturday 5, and Monday 7 July 1862, every evening during the week. Playbill incls. notice of benefit performance for J. F. O’Neill. and a performance of the play Lost & Found. Note that the Pavilion was destroyed by fire in 1856, rebuilt by Temple G. Tenney to the designs of the architect G. H. Simmonds and was known to be capable of holding 3,500 people in 1865. It was destroyed by airraids during the Blitz in 1940. The playbill is held in the Victoria and Albert Libraries; see also the Pavilion Theatre website, and the East London Theatre Archive [online]. (See also Clare Library notice on Ellen Hanley - The Colleen Bawn, attached.]

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Traits & Tales: In his Autobiography Carleton describes an account he gave of a townland dancing school in the Irish Penny Journal, subsequently published in a ‘volume of my short sketches called Tales and Stories of the Irish Peasantry - not Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, which is a different work altogether - in fact, my greatest.’ (1996 Edn., p.107.)

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Thomas Davis on Carleton: ‘Born and bred among the people - full of their animal vehemence skilled in their sports - as credulous and headstrong in boyhood, and as fitful and varied in manhood, as the wildest - he had felt with them and must ever sympathise with them. Endowed with the highest dramatic genius, he has represented their love and generosity, their wrath and negligence, their crimes and virtues, as a hearty peasant - not a notetaking critic. (Thomas Davis, Gill & Son, 1945, p.111; cited in Gerry Smyth, Decolonisation and Criticism: The Construction of Irish Literature (London: Pluto Press 1998, p.71.)

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Lady Morgan: In her Wild Irish Girl: A National Tale (1806), Sydney Owenson [later Lady Morgan] writes at some length of the poor scholar in Ireland, a topic later developed by Carleton in his own largely-autobiographical stories, and notably that “The Poor Scholar” (Traits and Stories, 1833, Vol. 1, pp.[57]–298; rep. in later collections as The Poor Scholar ... &c., &c.). Owenson writes on the subject: ‘[...] With a leathern satchel on his back, containing his portable library, he sometimes travels not only through his own province, but frequently over the greater part of the kingdom.No door is shut against the poor scholar, who, it is supposed, at a future day may be invested with the apostolic key of Heaven. The priest or schoolmaster of every parish through which he passes, receives him for a few days into his bare-footed seminary, and teaches him bad Latin and worse English; while the most opulent of his school-fellows eagerly seize on the young peripatetic philosopher, and provides him with maintenance and lodging; and if he is a boy of talent or humour (a gift always prized by the naturally laughter-loving Milesians), they will struggle for the pleasure of his society. [...; &c.; for full text, see RICORSO Library, “Irish Classics”, The Wild Irish Girl, Letter XV, attached.)

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Wildgoose Lodge”: After the execution of Paddy Devann by hanging, the perpetrator of the horror of Wildgoose Lodge, his mother remembers him as ‘my poor martyr’, while the peasantry recall him as ‘Poor Paddy!’; Carleton comments in a footnote, ‘This is a gloomy fact that speaks volumes.’ (Traits, Vol. 2 p.326). The Wildgoose murders are the subject of extensive commentary in Field Day Anthology, Vol. 2 [as supra]. See also Terence Dooley, The Murders at Wildgoose Lodge (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2007).

Wildgoose Lodge” concerns events of 29-30 Oct. 1816; Edward Lynch, a prosperous Catholic farmer, whose son-in-law Thomas Rooney had prosecuted three people for an earlier raid on the house, resulting in their execution; those active in the second raid numbered as many as 100; events at Wildgoose Lodge were used an an excuse to stamp out the “Louth conspiracy”; 23 people were convicted and hanged for the events of that night; the guilt of Paddy Devan is not beyond question; Irish Secretary Robert Peel was involved in the prosecutions. (Dee J. Ardle McArdle, review of Terence Dooley, The Murders at Wildgoose Lodge, in Books Ireland, Feb. 2008, pp.18-19.)

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Cleric life: Carleton wrote a memorandum of 1826 to Sir Robert Peel arguing strongly against Catholic Emancipation. Details of the “Peel Memorandum” are given in Wolff, William Carleton: Irish Peasant Novelist (NY: Garland 1980) pp.19-22, which also deals with the refusal of Bishop Murphy to support Carleton for entry to Maynooth because of his antagonistic relationship with Fr. Keenan to under whom Carleton was to study. Keenan was suspended by the bishop; but Carleton makes no mention of the matter of his lacking diocesan support in his Autobiography. (Cited in Peter Barr, UCC MA op. cit., supra].

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Contra Lever?: ‘Mr Lever’s “Irish” Novels’, printed in FDA1, pp.1255-65, and therein ascribed to Charles Gavan Duffy, is called a ‘scurrilous attack’ on Lever but ascribed to Carleton in Malcolm Brown, Politics of Irish Literature, 1972, with the added note that Lever apparently took the criticism to heart and resigned from the Dublin University Magazine to write a peace offering in the form of an agrarian novel, Saint Patrick’s Eve. [See Brown, op. cit., p.65 & ftn.]

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Carleton Summer School: The William Carleton Summer School held annually in Clogher Valley, Co. Tyrone, was inaugurated 11-14 Aug. 1992 in conjunction with a Community Festival on 8-15th Aug.

Redivivus: Carleton is the chief revenant in Seamus Heaney’s poem Station Island (1984), ‘O holy Jesus, does nothing change? … hard-mouthed Ribbonmen and ‘Orange bigots / made me into the old fork-tongued turncoat.’

William Trevor A Writer’s Ireland: Landscape of Literature (Viking 1984), quotes from “Wildgoose Lodge”: ‘the scene of hellish murder … lies at Wildgoose Lodge in the Co. of Louth, four miles from Carrickmacross and nine from Dundalk. The name … was Lynch.’ (Trevor, op. cit. p.92).

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William Jr.: A son, William, emigrated to Australia, while his son J. R. Carleton wrote a letter to D. J. O’Donoghue in (12 Oct. 1895) with an account of his father, then living and spoken of as ‘the well known Australian poet’, living at 34 York St, Melbourne. J. R. Carleton was a tradesman whose elaborately-designed stationery offering painting, paperhanging, house decorating, &c. from an address at 139 Toorak Road, South Yarra, with a private address at 77 Osborne St, South Yarra. (Information supplied on Bradford Diaspora E-list by correspondent Eileen O’Sullivan, Dir., Irish Educational Association, Gainesville, FL USA 32653; eolas1’juno.com.)

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Ulster-Scot?: Carleton wrote that he ‘studiously avoided that intolerable Scoto-Hibernic jargon which pierces the ear so unmercifully’ (q. source).

… the nephew: D. J. O’Donoghue, Poets of Ireland: A Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary of Irish Writers of English Verse (Dublin: Hodges Figgis & Co. 1912), also lists a William Carleton, dramatist in America who claimed to be a nephew, b. Dublin 1827; committed suicide.

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Portrait: There is an oil portrait of Carleton, seated by John Slattery (fl.1846-58), said by his widow to be ‘a most truthful one’, and held in the National Gallery of Ireland [incl. in Ulster Museum Exhib., 1965]

Portrait: A pen drawing of Carleton along with Robt. James and William Hamilton Maxwell, made by Charles Gray, was presented to the National Gallery of Ireland by W. G. Strickland (see W. B. Yeats, A Centenary Exhibition, Nat. Gallery of Ireland 1965).

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