Declan Kiberd: Life


Life
1951- ; b. 24 May 1951, Dublin; of Irish and Tyrolean extraction; ed. Belgrove Primary School [Scoil Eoin Baiste/St. John the Baptist], Clontarf, being taught by John McGahern in Junior School, and later at St. Paul’s, Raheny, Dublin; won entrance schol. to TCD (Irish & English); grad. 1972; exchange schol., Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, studying under Vivian Mercier [q.v.], and grad. MA (UCSB); proceeded to Linacre College, Oxford for PhD, and studied under Richard Ellmann; completed “A Critical Investigation of Gaelic Literary Traditions in the Writings of J. M. Synge” (1977);
 
appt. lecturer in English at UCD; Director of Yeats Summer School, inviting Edward Said to speak; offered and refused chair of English at Univ. College, Galway, due to the serious illness of his wife Beth at the time, c.1989; appt. lecturer in Irish, TCD; appt. to a personal chair in English at UCD; issued, with Sean Ó Mordha, Silence to Silence (RTE 1986), documentary on Beckett, script by Kiberd; visiting professor, Yale; appt. to Chair of Anglo-Irish Literature in succession to Augustine Martin, 1997;
 
appt. Head of Combined English Depts.; gave 2003 Parnell Lecture at Magdalene College, Cambridge Univ.; elected MRIA, March 2003; gave keynote lecture ‘After Ireland: The Death of a National Literature?’, June 2009, at Irish Seminar (NDU); issued Ulysses and Us: The Art of Everyday Living (2009), a study of Joyce’s novel; contrib. introduction to posthumous collected essays of John McGahern (Love of the World, 2009); took post at Notre Dame University, South Bend, Indiana, 2013; he launched Collected Plays of Patrick Pearse, ed. Róisín Ní Ghairbhí & Eugene McNulty, at Smock Alley Theatre Banquet Hall on 24 April 2013; issued After Ireland (2017) - a study of 17 modern works which trace national resourcefulness and decline after the revolutionary period.

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Works
Ph.D.
  • “A Critical Investigation of Gaelic Literary Traditions in the Writings of J. M. Synge” [PhD thesis; Oxon.] (1977), xii, 385pp.;
Monographs
  • Synge and the Irish Language (Basingstoke: Macmillan 1979), 294pp., & Do. [2nd edn.] (Basingstoke: Macmillan 1993), 328pp.;
  • Men and Feminism in Modern Literature (Basingstoke: Macmillan 1985), xii, 250pp.;
  • Idir Dhá Chultúr (Baile Atha Cliath: Coiscéim 1993), 287pp.;
  • Inventing Ireland: The Literature of a Modern Nation (London: Jonathan Cape 1995), 640pp. [see contents]; Do., another edn. (Harvard UP 1994), and Do [pb. edn.] (London: Vintage 1996);
  • Irish Classics (London: Granta 2001), 704pp. [see contents];
  • The Irish Writer and the World (Cambridge UP 2005), xi, 331pp. [see contents].
  • Ulysses and Us: The Art of Everyday Living (London: Faber & Faber 2009), xi, 399pp.
  • After Ireland: Writing the Nation from Beckett to the Present (Harvard UP 2017), 576pp. [studies of Edna O’Brien, Frank O’Connor, Seamus Heaney, Michael Hartnett; Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill, Eavan Boland; Brian Friel, Tom Murphy and John Banville, et al.].

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Articles & chapters
  • ‘Writers in Quarantine?: The Case for Irish Studies’, in Crane Bag, III, 1 (1979), pp.9-21 [rep. in Crane Bag Book of Irish Studies, 1982, pp.341-53 [extract];
  • ‘Story-telling: The Gaelic Tradition’, in The Irish Short Story, ed. Patrick Rafroidi & Terence Brown (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1979), pp.13-26 [see extract];
  • ‘The Fall of the Stage Irishman’, in Genre of the Irish Literary Revival, ed. Ronald Schliefer (Dublin: Wolfhound 1980), pp.39-60;
  • ‘The Perils of Nostalgia: A Critique of the Revival’, in Literature and the Changing Ireland, ed. Peter Connolly (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1982), pp.1-24;
  • ‘Aosdána: A Comment’, in Minorities in Ireland [with The Church-State Debate], in The Crane Bag, [Special Issue, ed. Timothy Kearney], 5, 1 (1981), pp.783-84;
  • ‘Inventing Irelands’, in Crane Bag, 8, 1 [RTE/UCD Lectures] (1984), pp.11-25 [early version of “Synge” in Inventing Ireland ];
  • Anglo-Irish Attitudes (Derry: Field Day Publications 1984) [pamphlet; see extract];
  • ‘Irish Literature and History’, in R. F. Foster, Illustrated History of Ireland (OUP 1989) [contrib. section];
  • ‘The Elephant of Revolutionary Forgetfulness’, in Revising the Rising, ed. Máirín Ní Donnchadha & Theo Dorgan (Derry: Field Day 1991), pp.1-20 [see extract];
  • ‘The Empire Writes Back’, in James P. Mackey, ed., Cultures of Europe: The Irish Contribution [City of Derry’s International Meeting for the Appreciation of the Arts] (QUB/IIS 1994), pp.109-73 [see extract];
  • ‘Poetry and Language in Public Life’, in Poetry Ireland Review, 45 (1995) [q.pp.];
  • [on Wilde,] in Times Literary Supplement, Dec. 1994 [‘Ireland’ issue];
  • ‘“White Skins, Black Masks”?: Celticism and Négritude’, in Éire-Ireland, XXX, 4 (Winter 1996), pp.163-75;
  • [essay on] Keating’s Foras Feasa ar Eirinn, in Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, ed., Nua Léamha; Gnéithe de Chultúr: Stair agus Polaitíocht na hÉireann c.1600-1900 (Baile Átha Cliath: Clóchomhar 1996), 206pp.;
  • ‘Decolonising the Mind’, in Rural Ireland, Real Ireland?, ed. Jacqueline Genet (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1996), pp.121-37;
  • ‘On Baile’s Strand: un “epica nazionale”’, in Yeats: a L’Autobiografismo, ed. M. Cataldi (Turin/Torino 1996), pp.111-26;
  • ‘English in an Irish Frame’, in Studies in the Literary Imagination (Fall 1997), [“The Schoolroom in Modern Irish Literature and Culture” Special Issue], ed. Rand Brandes, XXX, 2 (Fall 1997), pp.119ff. [see extract];
  • [essays on] Maria Edgeworth & James Joyce, in The Regional Novel in Britain and Ireland 1800-1990, ed. K. D. M. Snell (Cambridge UP 1999), 310pp.;
  • ‘Dancing at Lughnasa’, in The Irish Review, 27 [“A Post-Christian Ireland?” Iss.] (Summer 2001), pp.18-39 [see extract];
  • ‘Theatre as Opera: The Gigli Concert’, in Theatre Stuff: Critical Essays on Contemporary Irish Theatre, ed. Eamonn Jordan (Blackrock: Carysfort Press 2000), pp.145-58.
  • with Edna Longley, ed., Multiculturalism: The View from Two Irelands (Cork UP 2001 [in assoc. with Centre for Cross Border Studies]), ix, 78pp.;
  • with Michael D. Higgins, [essay], in Ireland in International Affairs: Interests, Institutions and Identities, ed. Ben Tonra & Eilís Ward (Dublin IPA 2002) [q.pp.; infra];
  • ‘Bloom in Bourgeois Bohemia’, in Times Literary Supplement (4 June 2004), p.14 [see extract].
  • ‘Yeats and Criticism’, in The Cambridge Companion to W. B. Yeats, ed. Majorie Howes & John Kelly (Cambridge UP 2006), pp.115-28.
  • ‘Literature and Politics’, in The Cambridge History of Irish Literature, ed. M. Kelleher & P. O’Leary (Cambridge UP 2006), Vol. II [Chap. 1]
 

See Jacqueline Hurtley, interview with Kiberd, in Ireland in Writing: Interviews with Writers and Academics, ed. Jacqueline Hurtley, Aliaga, et al. (Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi 1998), pp.143-75.

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Miscellaneous
  • Prionsias Ní Dhorchaí, ed., Brendan Behan: Poems and A Play [An Giall ], with an Introduction by Declan Kiberd (Oldcastle: Gallery Press 1981) [q.pp.];
  • The Merchant of Venice: Notes [York Notes] (Harlow: Longman 1981), 80pp.;
  • with Gabriel Fitzmaurice, ed., An Crann Faoi Bhláth/The Flowering Tree: Contemporary Irish Poetry with Verse Translations Dublin: Wolfhound Press 1991), xlii, 309pp. [Irish poetry since 1850];
  • Multiculturalism and Artistic Freedom: Rushdie, Ireland and India [Sociology Dept. Occasional Paper Ser., No. 12] (University College Cork 1994), 20pp.;
  • Introduction to Vivian Mercier, Modern Irish Literature: Sources and Founders, ed., Eilís Dillon (OUP 1994);
  • intro. & notes, Ulysses: Annotated Students’ Edition [Penguin Twentieth-century Classics] (London: Penguin 1992, rep. 2000), lxxxix, 1,194pp.;
  • ‘Celtic Nationalism and Postcoloniality: A Questionnaire and Some Responses’, in SPAN, 41 (New Zealand: Univ. of Waikato Oct. 1995), pp.36-41;
  • ‘Reinventing revisionism’, interview with Simon Catterson, in Fortnight Review (Jan. 1996), pp.31-32;
  • ‘Poet of Ireland and the World: Heaney’s Local pieties with Universal Appeal’, in Sunday Times (in Oct. 1995) Comment, c.5;
  • ‘A bloody sweet time to fight and die: Eye on the 20th Century: Ireland 1910-1919’, in The Irish Times (30 Dec. 1999); introduction to Reading the Future: Irish Writers in Conversation with Mike Murphy, ed. Caitríona Ní Anlauain (Dublin: Lillput Press 2000), 224pp.;
  • T. S. Eliot, trans. Valery Larbaud, Ulysses of James Joyce, ed. Marco Sonzogni with a foreword by Declan Kiberd [Anniversary issue 16 June 2001] (Dublin: Irish Translators’ Assoc. 2001) [parallel text]; intro., Marianne McDonald, & J. Michael Walton, eds., Amid Our Troubles: Irish Versions of Greek Tragedy (London: Methuen 2002);
  • intro., The Poets’ Chair: Readings and Interviews with Ireland’s Poets from the National Poetry Archive, Vol. 1 (Dublin: Poetry Ireland [2008]) [Seamus Heaney, Eavan Boland, Rita Ann Higgins];
  • ‘Returning to the spirit of Tiger Ireland is pointless [- o]nly a completely new political movement can tackle the challenges’, in The Irish Times (13 March 13 2010), Weekend, p.1 [cover feature].
 
See sundry reviews in Ricorso Library, infra.
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Reviews (selected)
  • Review of Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism, in The Irish Times (13 March 1993), Weekend, p.9 [called ‘rapturous’ by Joep Leerssen];
  • . ‘Breech Birth of a Naturalist’ [review of Seamus Heaney], in Sunday Tribune (October 28 1984), p.20;
  • ‘W.B. Yeats: Endings and Beginnings: A Review Essay’ [review of Seamus Deane, Strange Country, R. F. Foster, W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 1 (OUP 1997), and The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats: Vol. 2 1896-1900 ], in Éire-Ireland 32, 2 & 3 (Summer/Autumn 1997), pp.183-91;
  • ‘Demented Bachelors’, review of The Hill Bachelors, in London Review of Books (8 March 2001), pp.30-31;
  • ‘A Commentator of Class’ [review of Thomas Flanagan, There You Are: Writings on Irish and American Literature and History, in The Irish Times (Sat. 21 May 2005), Weekend.
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Bibliographical details
Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation (London: Jonathan Cape 1995), 719pp. CONTENTS; Acknowledgements, [xi]; Introduction [1]; 1: A New England Called Ireland? [9]; IRELAND - ENGLAND’S UNCONSCIOUS?: Interchapter, 29]; 2: Oscar Wilde - The Artist as Irishman [33]; III; John Bull’s Other Islander - Bernard Shaw [51]; ANGLO-IRELAND: THE WOMAN’S PART: Interchapter [67]; 4: Tragedies of Manners - Somerville and Ross [69]; 5: Lady Gregory and the Empire Boys [83]; YEATS: LOOKING INTO THE LION’S FACE: Interchapter [99]; 6: Chilhood and Ireland [101]; 7: The National Longing for Form [115]; RETURN TO THE SOURCE?: Interchapter [133]; 8: Deanglicization [136]; 9: Nationality or Cosmopolitanism? [155]; 10: J. M. Synge - Remembering the Future [166]; REVOLUTION AND WAR: Interchapter [191]; 11: Uprising [196]; 12: The Plebeians Revise the Uprising [218]; 13: The Great War and Irish Memory [239]; WORLDS APART? [289]; 14: Ireland and the End of Empire [251]; INVENTING IRELANDS: Interchapter [263]; 15: Writing Ireland, Reading England [268]; 16: Inventing Irelands [286]; 17: Revolt Into Style - Yeatsian Poetics [305]; 18: The Last Aisling - A Vision [316]; 19: James Joyce and Mythic Realism [327]; SEXUAL POLITICS: Interchapter [359]; 20: Elizabeth Bowen - The Dandy in Revolt [364]; 21: Fathers and Sons [380]; 22: Mothers and Daughters [395]; PROTESTANT REVIVALS: Interchapter [413]; 23: Protholics and Cathestants [418]; 24: Saint Joan - Fabian Feminist, Protestant Mystic [428]; 25: The Winding Stair [438]; 26: Religious Writing: Beckett and Others [454]; UNDERDEVELOPMENT: Interchapter [471]; 27: The Periphery and the Centre [481]; 28: Flann O’Brien, Myles, and The Poor Mouth [497]; 29: The Empire Writes Back - Brendan Behan [513]; 30: Beckett’s Texts of Laughter and Forgetting [530]; 31: Post-Colonial Ireland - “A Quaking Sod” [551]; RECOVERY AND RENEWAL: Interchapter [565]; 32: Under Pressure - The Writer and Society 1960-90 [580]; 33: Friel Translating [614]; 34: Translating Tradition [624]; REINVENTING IRELAND [639]; 35: Imagining Irish Studies [641]; Notes [655]; Index [701]. See extracts under Quotations, infra.

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Irish Classics (London: Granta 2000), 704pp. Acknowledgements [ix]; Introduction [xi]. Gaelic Ireland: Apocalypse Now? [1]; Bardic Poetry: The Loss of Aura [13]; Saving Civilization: Céitinn and Ó Bruadair [25]; Dying Acts: Ó Rathaille and Others [39]; Endings and Beginnings: Mac Cuarta and After [55]; Jonathan Swift: a Colonial Outsider? [71]; Home and Away: Gulliver’s Travels [86]; Nostalgia as Protest: Goldsmith’s ‘Deserted Village’ [107]; Radical Pastoral: Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer [124]; Sheridan and Subversion [137]; Eibhlín Dhubh Ní Chonaill: The Lament for Art Ó Laoghaire [161]; Brian Merriman’s Midnight Court [182]; Burke, Ireland and Revolution [203]; Republican Self-Fashioning: The Journal of Wolfe Tone [221]; Native Informants: Maria Edgeworth and Castle Rackrent [243]; Confronting Famine: Carleton’s Peasantry [265]; Feudalism Falling: A Drama in Muslin [287]; Love Songs of Connacht [302]; Anarchist Attitudes: Oscar Wilde [325]; George Bernard Shaw: Arms and the Man [340]; Somerville and Ross: The Silver Fox [360]; Undead in the Nineties: Bram Stoker and Dracula [379]; Augusta Gregory’s Cuchulain: The Rebirth of the Hero [399]; Synge’s Tristes Tropiques: The Aran Islands [420]; W.B. Yeats - Building Amid Ruins [440]; Ulysses, Newspapers and Modernism [463]; After the Revolution: O’Casey and O’Flaherty [482]; Gaelic Absurdism: At-Swim-Two-Birds [500]; The Blasket Autobiographies [520]; Incorrigibly Plural: Louis MacNeice [543]; Kate O’Brien: The Ante-Room [556]; All the Dead voices - Cré Na Cille [574]; Underdeveloped Comedy: Patrick Kavanagh [590]; Anglo-Gaelic Literature: Seán Ó Riordáin [602]; Irish Narrative: A Short History [617]. Notes [633]; Index [691]

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The Irish Writer and the World (Cambridge UP 2005), 354pp. Contents: 1. Introduction: the Irish writer and the world; 2. The fall of the stage Irishman; 3. Storytelling: the Gaelic tradition; 4. Writers in quarantine? - The Case for Irish studies; 5. Synge, Yeats and Bardic Poetry; 6. George Moore’s Gaelic Law Party; 7. The Flowering Tree: Modern Poetry in Irish; 8. On National Culture; 9. White Skins, Black Masks: Celticism and Negritude; 10. From Nationalism to Liberation; 11 . The War against the Past; 12. The Elephant of Revolutionary Forgetfulness; 13. Reinventing England ; 14. Museums and Learning; 15. Joyce’s Ellmann, Ellmann’s Joyce; 16. Multiculturalism: The Strange Death of Liberal Europe ; 17. The Celtic Tiger: A Cultural History; 18. The City in Irish Culture; 19. Strangers in their Own Country: Multiculturalism in Ireland.

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Commentary
[See separate file, infra.]

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Quotations
[See separate file, infra.]

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References
RIA Announcements (March 2003): Professor Declan Kiberd (UCD) is internationally recognised as one of the leading contemporary authorities on Anglo-Irish literature. He brought to the study of the subject a training in both English and Irish literatures which has been of crucial importance to his grasp of the area, as shown already in his first pioneering monograph Synge and the Irish Language (1979). But he has been able to place Irish writing in English also in the wider context of other postcolonial literatures, and this is the notable feature of his hugely successful and influential book Inventing Ireland (1995). This work has made a major impact in the academic understanding of its subject. (See Royal Irish Academy website, online.)

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Notes
Inventing & Remembering: ‘Inventing Irelands’, Crane Bag, 8, 1 (1984), pp.11-25, a proto-type of the argument in Inventing Ireland (1995), chapter: ‘J. M. Synge: Remembering the Future’. The adjacent essay in the Crane Hart is Seamus Deane, ‘Remembering the Future’. For an early version of the ‘inventing’ trope, see Eric Hobsbawn, ‘Introduction: Inventing Traditions’, in Hobsbawm & T. Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge UP 1983).

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Credit given: Seamus Heaney explicitly acknowledges that he is conducting his reading of Reading Gaol in the light of ‘some recent post-colonial readings of Wilde by critics like Declan Kiberd and Terry Eagleton,’ […; see under Eagleton, infra], and remarks: ‘As it turns out, Eagleton’s Oscar has had his wish granted [“that my jury should be composed of my peers”], at least partially. Criticism of Wilde has entered a phase of relish and extravagance which he would surely have approved of. Declan Kiberd in his 1984 Field Day Pamphlet Anglo-Irish Attitudes, has just the right kind of verve [quotes “Wilde saw that the image of the stage Irishman tells us more about English fears than Irish realities …”].’ (See Heaney, ‘Speranza in Reading’, in The Redress of Poetry, OUP 1995, p.86-87.)

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More cred: Joseph Valente coins the term metrocolonial in essays such as ‘Between Resistance and Complicity: Metrocolonial Tactics in Joyce’s Dubliners ’ (Narrative, Fall 1998, pp.215-30) - but credits Declan Kiberd with ‘map[ping] the condition’ in Inventing Ireland (1995).

Contradictions?: ‘the extraordinary capacity of Irish society to assimilate new elements through all its major phases’ (Inventing Ireland, Introduction, [p.6]); cf. ‘the evidence of recent centuries all points to the capacity of the Irish themselves to be assimilated.’ (p.651.) Cf. also, ‘the old canard that “the Gael must be the element that absorbs” was never seriously entertained by the writers: indeed, those who actually wrote in Irish were often more open to foreign (especially continental) influence than some who worked in English’ (p.156.) Note also that Kiberd compares the ‘protestant parliament for a protestant people’ offered by Northern unionists with de Valera’s ‘theocratic state’ on p.360, but cites the Protestant parliament alone in his final chapter. And cf: ‘art is too potent a force to be left entirely in the hands of its creators, and politics to pervasive […] to be left in the sole control of politicians’: in Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland.)

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Caveat: Mark Abley, reviewing James Clifford, Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century, Harvard UP [1997], quotes the author: ‘It’s worth pointing out the fallacy that “culture (singular) equals language (singular)”. This equation, implicit in nationalist culture ideas, has been thoroughly unravelled by Bahktin, for whom a language is a diverging, contesting, dialoguing set of discourses that no “native” - let alone visitor - can ever control.’ (Times Literary Supplement, 25 July, 1997, pp.5-6; p.6.)

Resigned islanders?: Declan Kiberd first came to notice for the general readership with a letter to Hibernia [magazine] (Feb. 1974) taking Leo Daly to task for remarks on John Messenger’s book [about] Inis Beag suggesting that Maurya’s final speech in Riders to the Sea was untypical of the Aran Islanders in its unquestioning resignation to fate. (See under Synge, infra.)

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Nation-watch: In their essay in Ben Tonra & Eilís Ward, eds., Ireland in International Affairs, Interests, Institutions and Identities (Dublin IPA 2002), Declan Kiberd and Michael D. Higgins argue that it is through exile that nationality is born, ‘given that no people can ever fully define itself from within’. (See Paul Gillespie, review, in The Irish Times, 16 Nov. 2002, “Weekend”.)

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A Novel Choice” [Irish Times /James Joyce Centre lect. series]: Declan Kiberd selects Amongst Women by John McGahern [‘It’s a signature novel for a generation of Irish people who lived through the last century. It takes the energies and trends of the time and gives them back to the reader in a recognisable form’]; The Country Girls by Edna O’Brien [‘Again, it reflects the experience of a lot of people who grew up in the countryside and later moved to the big city. It has a certain freshness to it and it made a big impact at the time’]; The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis [‘Children’s literature is very under-rated but hugely formative for so many young people and this is one of the best and written by an Irish author. You could speculate that the virtual world is not unconnected to fairy stories of the oral tradition told in the Irish countryside. There would be no Harry Potter without Narnia.’] (See The Irish Times, 27 Sept. 2003, aAnnouncing a lect. series based on the ten 10 most voted for novels on a list provided by the commissioned lecturers to be hosted by The James Joyce Centre, 23 Oct. - 27 Nov. 2003.)

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Cross-dressing?: See Kiberd’s interpretation of the 1594 portrait of Sir Thomas Lee in the bare legs of an Irish kern which he takes to be a symbol of the ‘physically as well as spiritually hypenated man’ [i.e., Anglo-Irishman] and a sign of Lee’s belief that ‘that he might lapse into utter saveragy unless the erasure of Irish culture was completed.’ (Inventing Ireland: The Literature of a Modern Nation, London: Jonathan Cape 1995, p.10; see further under Thomas Lee, infra.)

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Celtic Shakespeare?: Joyce’s famous remark to Yeats, ‘We have met too late …’, is echoed in Kiberd, ‘Yeats and Criticism’, The Cambridge Companion to W. B. Yeats, ed. Howes & Kelly (Cambridge UP 2006): ‘Joyce’s rereading of Shakespeare […] is embedded in Ulysses, with the result that few Yeatsians have noticed just how much support it offers to the man who the more youthful Joyce said was too old to be helped.’ (p.126.) The attendent footnote points to Kiberd’s own Inventing Ireland, 1995, pp.269-81, in which pages he conducts a discussion of Dowden’s imperialist study of Shakespeare and Joyce’s - arguably Irish or Celtic - counterpart: ‘Why is the underplot of King Lear in which Edmund figures lifted out of Sidney’s Arcadia and spatchcocked onto a Celtic legend older than history?’ (here p.270.) Kiberd quotes Dedalus’s answer and relates the question-and-answer form to the inadequacies of the contemporary examination board: ’Because the theme of the false or the usurping or the adulterous brother or all three in one is to Shakespeare what the poor are not, always with him. The note of banishment, banishment from the heart, banishment from home, sounds uninterruptedly from The Two Gentlemen of Verona onward till Prospero breaks his staff, buries it certain fathoms in the earth and drowns his book.’ (Ulysses, Penguin 992, pp.271, 272.) [The passage in Inventing Ireland makes no mention of ‘we have met too late’.]

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Peeing Stephen: In his notes to the “Proteus” episode in the Penguin Student Edition of Ulysses (1992), Kiberd writes in one place, ‘Stephen will later piss on the beach’ (n.58.24; U,964) and later annotates ‘seesoo ... ooos' with the words: ‘Stephen pees on the beach. The text offers another challenge to the limits of language and a further example of the transformation of matter.’ (62.19; U,965.) In Ulysses and Us (2009), he writes: ‘He makes himself resemble the dog by urinating in the sand. Once again the text confronts a challenge to the limits of language, as the sound of pissing mingles with the speech of the nearby waves: “seesoo, hrss, rsseiss, ooos’ (U,62). The sentence that apparently disposes Kiberd to read the onomatopoeic sounds as those of urination is Stephen's saying to himself within the same paragraph, ‘Better get this job over quick.’ (62.18.) Far from referring to urination, of which there is no sign of any urgency in the surrounding passages, the ‘job’ is most likely the tiresome business of lodging Deasy’s letter with the Evening Telegraph, as he does in “Aoelus”. In fact, the sound of the sea filling rockpools and running out again is foreshadowed in the opening words of the paragraph in question: ‘In long lassoes from the Cock lake the water flowed full, covering greengoldenly lagoons of sand, rising, flowing.’ (U,62.14f.) No need here for Stephen to add to the current. Nor does the ensuing description really sound like human waste: ‘Vehement breathe of waters amid seasnakes ... cups of rocks it slops: flop, slop, slap: bounded in barrels. And, spent, its speech ceases.’ (U,62.20-23.) Perhaps the end-phrase, ‘widely flowing, floating foampool, flower unfurling’ (U, 62.23-24) might be taken as anticipating the ‘languid floating flower’ of Bloom’s genitalia (U,107) but Kiberd makes no such connection. Moments before, in fact, Stephen has been ‘l[ying] back at full stretch on the sharp’: U,61.27) writing verses and watching his ‘broadtoed boots, a buck’s castoffs nebeneinander’ (U,62,05-06) while his ‘ashplant' threatens to ‘float away’ - presumably on the tide (U,62.16). Gifford does not trouble to annotated the onomatopoeics, but notes that Cock Lake is a tidal pool off Sandymount. (Ulysses Annotated, 1984, p.64.)

Note that Gifford construes nacheinander and nebeneinander in the context of Lessing's Laocoon (1766) where he sets out the distinction between visual arts and poetry in the former of which actions occur one after another in time-sequence (nacheinander) and in the latter of which it is static so that ‘its different parts developing in co-existence (nebeneinander) in space’ (See Gifford, op. cit., pp.45, 63). In Ulysses and Us, Kiberd quotes Ernst de Peert: ‘It is precisely those moments that we put together as a simultaneity, a Nebeinander [sic], which constitute a sequence, a Nacheinander, in the seeing of an object.’ (Kiberd, op. cit., p.67; citing de Peert as being cited and discussed by Stephen Kern in The Culture of Time and Space, Harvard UP 2003, p.22.)

Blood of the lamb: note that Kiberd has it that Bloom accepts the flier with these words from ‘a sombre YMCA young man’ outside the GPO, or in the vicinity, a he proceeds southward past Bachelors Walk to the Grafton St. area of Dublin in “Lestrygonians”: ‘It plays on that episode's [i.e., “Aeolus”, set in the Freeman’s Journal office adjacent to the GPO] use of the locale of of the 1916 Rising, with its imagery of the shedding of blood at Easter-time.’ . (U,190; Ulysses and Us, p.125.)

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Kith & Kin: Damien Kiberd, brother of Declan, also ed. at Synge St., studied [economics] at TCD and worked for the Irish Press at Burgh Quay, 1979-87 and again in 1989, establishing a reputation as a leading pundit; founded with others The Sunday Business Post, 1989, which was sold in 2001 for a profit in the millions; later appt. Station Editor at Newstalk 106.

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