P. W. Joyce

Life
1827-1914 [Patrick Weston]; b. Glenosheen [var. Ballyorgan] nr. Ballyhoura Mts., S. Co. Limerick; educ. in ‘hedge-school’ and at Kilfinane, Kilmallock, Galbally (Co. Limerick), and Mitchelstown, Co. Cork; later at TCD, BA 1861, MA, 1864; at first taught in Clonmel; mbr. Society for Preservation of the Irish Language; entered Commission of National Education, 1845; appointed to a commission charged with reforming the management of the National Schools, 1856; head of Central National Model Schools, 1860; MRIA, 1863; Pres. Royal Soc. of Irish Antiquarians, 1906-08; Principal of Marlborough St. Teacher Training College, 1874-1893; chiefly remembered for Irish Names of Places, 3 vols. (1869, 1875, 1913), significantly founded on the records of the Ordnance Commission’s Topography Dept. and later cited facetiously by James Joyce in “Gas from a Burner” [‘Joyce’s names and places’]; Irish Local Names Explained (1870) is simply a listing; he also issued Ancient Irish Music (1872), published by subscription; A Handbook of School Management (1876); How to Prepare for Civil Service Examinations (1878); Old Celtic Romances (1879); The Geography of the Counties of Ireland (1883); Irish Music and Song (1888); A Child’s History of Ireland (1898; Longmans 1903);
 
also A Reading of Irish History (1900); A Social History of Ancient Ireland [2 vols.] (1903-1920), described as ‘an unfortunately uncritical work’ by Liam de Paor (Early Christian Ireland, 1958); The Story of Ancient Ireland (1906); A Small Social History of Ancient Ireland (1906); The Story of Ancient Irish Civilisation (1907); English as We Speak It in Ireland (1910), based on a lists supplied by D. A. Simmons; The Wonders of Ireland and Other Papers on Irish Subjects (1911); Outlines of the History of Ireland (1894); also ed., Old Irish Folk Music and Songs ([q.d.]; NY: Cooper Sq. Pub., 1965); his br. was Robert Dwyer Joyce; his son, also Robert Dwyer Joyce, wrote Alfred Lord Tennyson, A Memoir, 2 vols.; his library is held in the Cregan Library of St. Patrick’s Teacher-Training College [DCU], Drumcondra; incls. an MS copy of Echtra Cormaic itir Tairngiri agus Ceart Claíd Cormaic (Adventures of Cormac in the Land of Promise), from the Book of Ballymote, in his own hand. CAB PI JMC IF DIB DIW DIH OCEL DIL FDA OCIL

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Works
  • A Hand-Book of School Management and Methods of Teaching (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill 1867);
  • Irish Local Names Explained (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill 1870), Do. [another edn.] (Dublin: M. H. Gill 1902), and Do. [rep. edn.] (Dublin: Fred Hanna 1968), 107pp.
  • Ancient Irish Music containing one hundred airs hitherto unpublished. Many of the older popular songs. And Several New Songs. Collected and Edited by P. W. Joyce (L.L.D., M.R.I.A.) The Harmonies [by] Professor Glover (Dublin: McGlashen & Gill; London: Simpkin, Marshall, &c.; Edinburgh: John Menzies 1873), ix, 104, 5pp. [t.p. epigraph: ‘some notes we used to love / In days of boyhood’; 5pp. of subscription names; see interactive copy in ITMA - online];
  • [ed.,] Forus Feasa Air [sic] Eirinn: Keating’s History of Ireland, Book I, Part 1, with Gaelic text &c. (Dublin: Gill 1880);
  • [intro.], Atlas & Geography of Ireland: A Description of the Country and of the Several Counties by John Bartholomew (London: G. Philip [1883]), 33 col. maps ; Do. as Philip’s Handy Atlas of the Counties of Ireland, revised by P. W. Joyce, with consulting index (London: George Philip & Sons 1881), 12m°., 33 maps, 41pp.; Do. [another edn.] (1885);
  • Irish Music and Song: A Collection of Songs in the Irish Language / Set to Music / edited for / The Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language by P. W. Joyce [... &c.] [1888; new edn.] (Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son 1901), vi, [ii], 44pp. [see details];
  • A Grammar of Irish Language for the Use of Schools (Dublin: M. H. Gill 1879); Do. [rep. as] A Grammar of the Irish Language (Dublin: M. H. Gill 1892);
  • A Short History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1608 (London: Longmans, Green 1893), vii, [i], 565pp. [see details]
  • Outlines of the History of Ireland: From The Earliest Times to 1905 (Dublin: Educational Publishing Company 1894), 160pp. [see details];
  • A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland: Treating of the Government, Military System, and Law; Religion, Learning and Art; Trades, Industries, and Commerce; Manners, Customs, and Domestic Life, of the Ancient Irish People (London: Longman, Green; Dublin: M. H. Gill 1906) [see details];
  • A Concise History of Ireland (Dublin: M. H. Gill 1910; 1912) [abridgement of A Short History of Ireland with add. material to death of Parnell].
  • Irish Peasant Songs in the English Language (London: Longmans, Green & Co.; Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son 1906), iv, 16, [4]pp.; Do. [rep. edn.] (1920). 
  • The Story of Ancient Irish Civilization (London: Longmans 1907);
  • Old Celtic Romances, translated from the Gaelic [3rd ed., rev. and enl.] (London: Longmans, Green 1907); Do. [another edn.] (Dublin: The Education Co. of Ireland; London: Longmans, Green & Company 1920), 474pp. [see details];
  • Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: A Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs hitherto Unpublished; edited, with annotations, for The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, & Co.; London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1909) [see details & extracts];
  • A Child’s History of Ireland (London: Longmans 1910), 508pp. [see extracts];
  • The Wonders of Ireland and Other Papers on Irish Subjects (London: Longmans, Green; Dublin: Gill 1911);
  • English as We Speak It in Ireland (1910; rep. edn. Dublin: Wolfhound Press 1979) [see details];
  • The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, [1st Edn.; spine: Irish Names of Places] (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill 1869), xiv, 530pp. [see editions];
  • A Social History of Ancient Ireland (London: Longmans, Green 1893) [see details], and Do. (Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son 1920) [prev. imps. 1903; 1913];
  • Old Celtic Romances translated from the Gaelic (Dublin: Educational Co. of Ireland 1920) [containing ‘The Children of Lir’, ‘The Pursuit of Dermat and Grania’, ‘Connla of the Golden Hair and the Fairy Maiden’, ‘Oisin in Tirnanoge’], and Do. [another edn.] (NY: Devin-Adair 1962);
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Bibliographical details
Irish Music and Song: A Collection of Songs in the Irish Language / Set to Music / edited for / The Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language by P. W. Joyce [... &c.] [1888; new edn.] (Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son 1901), vi, [ii], 44pp. CONTENTS: Ode in Praise of the Irish Language (air: The Princess Royal); Dan-Mholadh na Gaedhilge (air: Bainphrionnsa Rioghamhuil); ’Be’n Eirinn I; ’Be’n Eirinn I; Eoghan Coir; Eibhlin a Ruin; Eileen Aroon; Eibhlin a Ruin; Eileen A Roon; An Raibh Tu ag an gCarraig?; Have You Been at Carrick?; As Truagh gan Peata an Mhaoir Agum; I Wish the Shepherd’s Pet Were Mine; Rois Geal Dubh, An; Paistin Fionn; Fair Young Child, The; Jimmy Mo Mhile Stor; Jimmy Moveela Sthore; Seaghan O Duibhir an Ghleanna; John O’Dwyer of the Glen; Dia-Luain, Dia-Mart, agus Dia-Ceadaoin; Ar Eirinn Ni ’Neosainn Ce hI; For Ireland I’d Not Tell Her Name; Binn Lisin Aerach an Bhrogha; Melodious Airy Little Fort of Bruff; Grainne Mhaol; Fainne Geal an Lae; Dawning of the Day; Tighearna Mhaigheo; Ban-Chnoic Eireann Ogh (air: Ullachan Dubh O); The Fair Hills of Holy Ireland; Ban-Chnoic Eireann Ogh; The Fair Hills of Holy Ireland; A Chuisle Mo Chroidhe Cread I an Ghruaim Sin Ort?; O, Pulse of My Heart, Why Do You Frown?; Druimfhionn Donn Dilis; Drimin Dhown Dheelish; Moirin Ni Chuillionain; Moreen O’Cullenan; Maire Bheil-Atha-hAmhnais (air: Port Gordon); Mary of Ballyhaunis [all songs with music and words].

Available at Gutenberg Project
 
  • English as We Speak it in Ireland - www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/34251
  • The Story of Ancient Irish Civilisation - www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/41666.
  • Old Celtic Romances - www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/38041
  • A Reading Book of Irish history - www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/33439
  • Available elsewhere
      A Concise History of Ireland (1910) - www.libraryireland.com/JoyceHistory/Contents.php

    Digital versions available at ITMA > Joyce, Irish Music and Song (1888; 1901)
    online]
    To access these copies, download and install Sibelius Scorch - online.

    See “P. W. Joyce - Irish Music Microsite” at Irish Traditional Music Archive/Taisce Ceol Dúchais Éireann - online.

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    A Short History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1608 / by / P. W. Joyce, LL.D., T.C.D., M.R.I.A., / One of the Commissioners for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland; author of Irish Names of Places, Old Celtic Romances, and other works relating to Ireland / with a map (London: Longmans, Green, & Co.; NY: 15 East 16th St. 1893), vii, [i], 565pp. See copy of formerly belonging to Henry Morse Stephens, California Library [LA];

    [ See extract on St. Patrick - as attached. A copy in the University of California [sic] with the bookplate of former owner H[enry] Morse Stephens cat. as DA910 J62 is available at Internet Archive online; accessed 10.01.2011. ]

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    Outlines of the History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1905, by P. W. Joyce, LLD, MRIA, One of the Commissioners for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland [author of A Social History of Ireland, A Child’s History of Ireland, Irish Names of Places, Old Celtic Romances, Ancient Irish Music, A Reading Book in Irish History, and other works relating to Ireland / Longmans, Green and Co. London, New York and Bombay, Dublin: M. H. Gill and Sons 1910. [other edns. 1914; 1921.]

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    A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland: Treating of the Government, Military System, and Law; Religion, Learning and Art; Trades, Industries, and Commerce; Manners, Customs, and Domestic Life, of the Ancient Irish People (London: Longman, Green; Dublin: M. H. Gill 1906) [See table of contents, attached].

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    English As We Speak It In Ireland (London: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1910), x, 356pp. [18cm.]; Do. [2nd. & 3rd Edns.] (also 1910); Do. [?3rd edn.] (Dublin: Talbot Press; London : Longmans & Co. [1920]), x, 356pp.; Do. [facs. rep.] (Detroit: Gale Research 1968); & Do. [facs. of 2nd. edn], with new introduction by Terence Dolan (Portmarnock: Wolfhound Press 1979), xxviii, x, 356pp., ill., 1 pl., port. [21cm.], and Do. (Dublin: Wolfhound Press 1987), xlii, 356pp.

    See a digital edition of P. W. Joyce’s English As We Speak It In Ireland (1910). - at “Dublin Chapters”, index - accessed 06.11.2011; also available at Gutenberg Project - online.

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    The Origin and History of Irish Place Names [1st Edn.; spine: Irish Names of Places] (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill 1869), xiv, 530pp.; Do. [2nd edn.; enl. & corr.] (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill, 1870), xviii, 571pp.; Do. [3rd edn.] (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill 1871), xviii, 573pp.; Do., 3 vols. [4th edn.] (Dublin: McGlashan & Gill; London: Whittaker & Co.; Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1875), xviii, 593pp., [Pref. dated Dublin, March 1875; 17cm. - available at Internet Archive online]);Do. [another edn.], 2 vols. (Dublin: M. H. Gill; London: Whittaker, Simpkin, Marshall; Edinburgh: J. Menzies 1883) [18cm]; Do. [5th edn.], 2 vols. (Dublin: M. H. Gill 1887) [18 cm]; Do. [another edn.], 2 vols. (London: Longmans, Green 1910-13) - Vol. 1, 1910; Vol. 2., 1912; Vol. 3., 1913); Do. [another edn.], 3 vols. (Dublin: Educational Co. of Ireland, 1898-1913) [Bibl., Vol. 3, pp.ix-x]; Do. (Dublin: Phoenix Publishing Co. 1913), Pref., v-xiv; [text:] 531pp. + Index of Names (pp.533-82); Index of Root Words (pp.583-89) [spine: Irish Names of Places - available at Internet Archive online]; Do., 3 vols. (Dublin: The Educational Company of Ireland [1925]), 19cm. - of which Vol. II, 538pp.; Do. [rep. of 4th edn.; McGlashan & Gill, Dublin, 1875] Irish Names of Places, 3 vols. (Wakefield: EP Publ. 1972; 1976), viii, iii-xviii, 593pp. [Bibl. pp.ix-xii]; Do., as Pocket Guide to Irish Place Names, [by] P. W. Joyce. [Appletree Guides] ((Belfast: Appletree Press 1992), 96pp.; Do., as Irish Names of Places [another edn.]  with a new introductory essay on P.W. Joyce by Mainchín Seoighe, 3 vols. [facs. edn. of orig. edn. 1869-1913] (Dublin: Éamonn De Burca 1995) (1) xl, 589pp.; (2) viii, 538pp. (3) x, 598pp.; Do. [Kessinger Publishing’s rare reprints; facs. of 3rd edn., 1871] (Whitefish MT: Kessinger Publishing [2006]), xviii, 572pp. [23 cm.]. [also known as Irish Names of Places; see extracts under Quotations, infra.] Note: often with spine-title as Irish Names of Places.

    Irish Names of Places, Vol. I (Dublin: Phoenix Publ. Co. 1913) - CONTENTS
     

    PART I - THE IRISH LOCAL NAME SYSTEM.
    CHAPTER I. How the Meanings have been ascertained, [1]
    CHAPTER II. Systematic Changes [17]
    CHAPTER III. Corruptions [47]
    CHAPTER IV. False Etymologies [69]
    CHAPTER V. The Antiquity of Irish Local Names [76]

    PART II - NAMES OF HISTORICAL AND LEGENDARY ORIGIN.
    CHAPTER I. Historical Events [86]
    CHAPTER II. Historical Personages [121]
    CHAPTER III. Early Irish Saints [142]
    CHAPTER IV. Legends [159]
    CHAPTEK V. Fairies, Demons, Goblins, and Ghosts [178]
    CHAPTER VI. Customs, Amusements, and Occupations [200]
    CHAPTER VII. Agriculture and Pasturage [227]
    CHAPTER VIII. Subdivisions and Measures of Land [ 241]
    CHAPTER IX. Numerical Combinations [ 246]

    PART II - NAMES COMMEMORATING ARTIFICIAL, STRUCTURES.
    CHAPTER I. Habitations and Fortresses [268]
    CHAPTER II. Ecclesiastical Edifices [312]


    CHAPTER III. Monuments, Graves, and Cemeteries [329]
    CHAPTER IV. Towns and Villages [347]
    CHAPTER V. Fords, Weirs, and Bridges [353]
    CHAPTER VI. Roads and Causeways [370]
    CHAPTER VII. Mills and Kilns [374]

    PART IV - NAMES DESCRIPTIVE OF PHYSICAL FEATURES.
    CHAPTER I. Mountains, Hills, and Rocks [378]
    CHAPTER II. Plains, Valleys, Hollows, and Caves [ 422]
    CHAPTER III. Islands, Peninsulas, and Strands [440]
    CHAPTER IV. Water, Lakes, and Springs [446]
    CHAPTER V. Rivers, Streamlets, and Waterfalls [454]
    CHAPTER VI. Marshes and Hogs [461]
    CHAPTER VII. Animals [408]
    CHAPTER VIII. Plants [491]
    CHAPTER IX. Shape and Position [622]

    INDEX OF NAMES [533]
    INDEX OF ROOT WORDS [583]

       
    p.xiii-[xiv] - go to Internet Archive online; accessed 27.10.2015.

    See a digital copy of P. W. Joyce’s The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places (1875 M’Glashan edition) - available at Internet Archive as pdf; also Do. (Dublin: Phoenix Publishing Co. 1913) - at Internet Archive online].

    Note: The two editions cited above - 1875 and 1913 - show many differences in the the prefatory materials and table of contents suggesting constant revision amounting to re-writing over the years. The 1875 edition is styled “2nd Series”]. The number of volumes associated with the book from printing to printing is highly variable and has been notarised here primarily from COPAC (Coordinated Online Public Access Catalogue, UK).

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    A Social History of Ancient Ireland, treating of the Government; Military System, and law; Religion, Learning, and Art; Trades, Industries, and Commerce; Manners, Customs, and Domestic Life, of the Ancient Irish People, by P. W. Joyce, LLD Trin. Coll., Dubl.; MRIA, one of the commissioners for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland; Vol. I [prev. imp. 1903; 1913] (Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son 1920), 632pp.; includes dedicatory page, ‘The Place, Time, Author and Cause of Writing, of this book, are:- Its place is Lyre-na-Grena, Leinster-road, Rathmines, Dublin; its time is the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and three; the author is Patrick Weston Joyce, Doctor of Laws; and the cause of writing the same book is to give glory to God, honour to Ireland, and knowledge to those who desire to learn about the Old Irish People; also incl. acknowledgement to Kuno Meyer, ‘now our greatest and most accomplished Irish scholar’, or notes made while reading the first edition on its first appearance, then transmitted to Joyce. Contents list Parts I and II; Part III (Chap. XIX, ‘The Family’, &c.) ensue in Vol. II (1903, 1913, 1920), 608pp. [Full-text version in progress.]

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    Old Irish Folk Music and Songs / A collection of 842 airs and songs hitherto unpublished / edited, with annotations, / for the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland / by / P. W. Joyce L.L.D., M.R.I.A., / President of the Society / Longmans, Green and Co. / 39, Paternoster Row, London, / New York, Bombay, and Calcutta, / Dublin, Hodges and Figgis, & Co., Ltd., / 1909 / (All rights reserved); [verso:] printed at Ponsonby & Gibbs. [Part I & II: songs from Joyce’s own collection; Part II: Irish folk songs in the English language; Parts III; collection of the Cork musician William Forde; Pt. IV, collection of John Edward Pigot. Preface cites his own Ancient Irish Music and Irish Peasant Songs in the English language as source of songs in Pt. II. [See account in Ask About Ireland website of Irish Libraries - online; also available in full as PDF.]

    Preface: ‘[...] The book that [...] I was most careful about in the great collection of Dr. Petrie’s airs recently edited for "The Irish Literary Society, London," by Sir Charles Villiers Stanford. [...] The gross number of airs in the “Stanford-Petrie” Collection (as for convenience I call it throughout this book) is 1582; and making allowance for those already published, as stated, and for some inadvertant repetitions in the book itself, we have a lage residue of airs never previously published - the largest collection of the kind that has ever appeared - a noble treasure-store of Irish melody. I read every one of the 1582 airs in this book, and, so far as lay in my power, I have avoided repeating any of them, excluding even those contributed by myself to Dr. Petrie more than fifty years ago - a very large number - nearly 200 - most of which bear my name all through the book.
    [...]
    I have examined the collection lately published by Captain Francis O’Neill of Chicago - “The Music of Ireland” - and I do not think I have reproduced any of his airs. But it was only when a good part of this book of mine was printed that his second volume - “The Dance Music of Ireland” - came into my hands; and I find that one or two of his dance tunes have been repeated here, though in different versions.’ (p.vi; see further extracts from the Preface - as supra.)

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    Old Celtic Romances, translated from the Gaelic [3rd ed., rev. and enl.] (London: Longmans, Green 1907); Do. [another edn.] (Dublin: The Education Co. of Ireland, Ltd., 88 Talbot Street; London: Longmans, Green and Company, 39 Paternoster Row 1920), 474pp. [Notes, 455; Alphabetical list of principal proper names [...], 471ff.; epigraph: "I shall tell you a pretty tale" - Coriolanus; copy at UCLA available at Internet Archive - online]

    See a digital copy of P. W. Joyce’s Old Celtic Romances (1907; 1920 Edn.) at Internet Archive - online; also available at Gutenberg Project - online.

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    Quotations

    ‘There is a hideous kind of hobgoblin generally met with in churchyards, called a dullaghan, who can take off and put on his head at will - in fact you generally meet him with that member in his pocket, under his arm, or absent altogether or if you have the fortune to light on a number of them you may see them amusing themselves by flinging their heads at one another, or kicking them for footballs.’ (Patrick W. Joyce from The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, 1869; quoted in Bridget O’Toole, ‘Famine and Faery’, review of Irish Literature: The Nineteenth Century, Vol. II, ed. Peter van de Kamp & A. Norman Jeffares, in Books Ireland, Feb. 2008, p.14f. )

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    Irish Names of Places (1869), Preface: ‘The local nomenclature of most countries of Europe is made up of the language of the various races [...] In our island, there was scarcely any admixture of races, till the introduction of an important English element, chiefly within the last three hundred years - for, as I have shown, the Danish irruptions produced no appreciable effect; and accordingy, our place-names are purely Celtic, with the exception of about a thirteenth part, which are English, and mostly of recent introduction. This great name system, begun thousands of years ago by the first wave of population that reached our island, was continued unceasingly from age to age, till it embraced the minute features of the country in its intricate network; and such as it sprang forth from the minds of our ancestors, it exists almost unchanged to this day.’

    Further: ‘This is the first book ever written on the subject. In this respect I am somewhat in the position of a settler of a new country, who has all the advantages of priority of claim, but who purchases them too dearly perhaps, by the labour and difficulty of tracking his way through the wilderness, and clearing his settlement from primeval forest and tangled underwood.’ (pp.vi-vii; quoted in Thomas Hofheinz, Joyce and the Invention of Irish History, Cambridge UP 1995, p.[83].)

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    Irish Names of Places (1869) - cont.: ‘Indeed my notes on this subject from an sources would be enough to astonish any person looking through them - enough indeed to alarm one at the idea of classifying and using them [...] The great name system, begun thousands of years ago by the first wave of population that reached our island, was continued unceasingly from age to age till it embraced the minutest features of the country in its intricate network, and, such as it sprang from the minds of our ancestors, it exists almost unchanged to this day.’ ‘These volumes comprise what I have to say conceming Irish Local Names; for I have noticed all the principal circumstances that were taken advantage of by the people of this country to designate places; and I have explained and illustrated, as far as lay in my power, the various laws of name-forrnation, and all the important root-words used in building up the structure’. (Cited in De Burca Catalogue 44, 1997[,] p.32.)

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    Irish Names of Places (1869) - cont.: ‘The face of a country is a book which, if it be deciphered correctly and read attentively, will unfold more than ever did the cuneiform inscriptions of Persia, or the hieroglyphics of Egypt. Not only are historical events, and the names of innumerable remarkable persons recorded, but the whole social life of our ancestors - their customs, their superstitions, their battles, their amusements, their religious fervour, and their crimes - are depicted in vivid and everlasting colours. The characters are often obscure, and the page defaced by time, but enough remains to repay with a rich reward the toil of the investigator. Let us hold up the scroll to the light, and decipher some of these interesting records.’ (q.p.; Quoted in Richard Kain, ‘“Nothing Odd Will Do Long”: Some Thoughts on Finnegans Wake Twenty-five Years Later’, Jack P. Dalton & Clive Hart, eds., Twelve and a Tilly: Essays on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of Finnegans Wake, London: Faber & Faber 1966, p.95.)

    [For full-text version of Joyce's Preface to the Irish Names of Places (1869, &c.) - see attached.]

    See minor extracts from Old Celtic Romances, 1907; 1920 Edn., under James Macpherson [as infra] and Brian Merriman [as infra].

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    A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland (1906), Preface: ‘[...] it seems to me very desirable that a good knowledge of the social conditions of ancient Ireland such as is presented here, should be widely diffused among the people; more especially now, Chap. II - Govt. / Classes of Kings: ‘The government of the whole country, as well as that of each division and subdivision, was in the hands of king or chief, who had to carry on his government in accordance with the immemorial customs of the country, or sub-kingdom. And his authority was further limited by the counsels of his chief men. The usual name for a king in the ancient as well as in the modern language is [ree], genitive [ree]. A queen was and is called riogan [pro. reean]. Over all Ireland there was one king who, to distinguish him from [the others] was called high-king [ard ri]’.

    A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland (1906): ‘Dr. Todd tested the statement in the Annals regarding the full tide at the start of the battle of Clontarf by calculating with Rev. Samuel Haughton [on the calendar].’ Further: ‘As to the general moral tone of the ancient Irish tales, it is to be observed that in all early literatures, Irish among the rest, there is much plain speaking of a character that

    when there is an awakening of interest in the Irish language, and Irish lore of every kind, unparalleled in our history.’ (p. ix);

    A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland (1906) - more [would now be considered coarse, and would not be tolerated in our present social and domestic life. But on the score of morality and purity the Irish tales can be compared favourably with the corresponding literature of other coutries, and they are much freer from objectionable matter than the workds of many of those early English and continental authors which are now regarded as classic.’ (p.237; quoted in Maria Tymoczko, The Irish Ulysses, Calif. UP 1994, pp.309-10.)

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    Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: A Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs hitherto Unpublished; edited, with annotations, for The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (Dublin, Hodges, Figgis, & Co. 1909): ‘I spent all my early life in a part of county Limerick where music, singing, and dancing were favourit amusements. My home in Glenosheen, in the heart of the Ballyhoura Mountains, was a home of music and song; they were in the air in the valley; you heard them everywhere - sung, played, whistled; and they were mixed up with the people’s pastimes, occupations, and daily life. Though we had pipers, fiddlers, fifers, whistlers, and singers of our own, wandering musicians were welcomed; and from every one some choice air or song that struck our fancy was pretty sure to be learned and stored up to form part of the ever-growing stock of minstrelsy. As I loved the graceful music of the people of my childhood, their songs, dance tunes, keens, and lullabies remained in my memory, almost without any effort of my own: so that I ultimately became, as it were, the general, and it be said the sole, legatee of all this long-accumulated treasure of melody.’

    Further: It will be seen then that my knowledge of Irish music, such as it is, did not come to me form the outside in after-life, or by a late study, as a foreign language is learned, but grew up from within during childhood and boyhood, to form part of my mind like my native language.
      When I came to reside in Dublin, and became acquainted for the first time with the various published collections of Irish music, I was surprised to find that a great number of my tunes - many of them very beautiful - were unpublished, and quite unknown outside the district or province in which they had been learned. This pleasant discover I made in the year 1853 through my acquaintance with Dr. George Petrie - the founder of scientific Irish Archaeology - who was then engaged in editing his Ancient Music of Ireland. Mainly through his example, and indeed partly at his suggestion, I set about writing down all the airs I could recollect - a task followed up for years, and which in fact is hardly yet ended. Then I went among the people - chiefly in the sourt - during vacations, noting down whatever I thought worthy of preserving, both music and words. In this way I gradually accumulated a very large collection. All these I placed in Dr. Petrie’s hands from time to time, [vii] down to about 1856; and I have good reason to believe they are still among the Petrie papers. But I kept copies of all, as a precaution.
    [...]
     These personal details, and like them through the book, will I hope be excused; inasmuch as they are given simply as a necessary part of the history of the airs in this volume. They may be turned to use at some future time by students of Irish Music. (pp.vii-viii.) [See bibliographical details of Old Irish Folk Music and Songs [... &c.], as supra.]

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    A Child’s History of Ireland (1910)
    Introduction/Preface
    ‘In writing this book I have generally followed the plan of weaving the narrative round important events and leading personages. This method, while in no degree interfering with the continuity of the History, has enabled me to divide the whole book into short chapters, each forming a distinct narrative or story more or less complete; and it has aided me in my endeavour to make the History of Ireland interesting and attractive.
      With descending to childish phraseology, I have done my best to make the language so simple and plain tha any child can understand it who is able to read English with facility. My constant iam has been to make the book easy to read and easy to understand.
      Above all I have tried to write soberly and moderately, avoiding exaggeration and bitterness, pointin gout extenuating circumstances where it was just and right to do so, giving credit where credit is due, and showing fair play all round.
     A writer may accomplish all this while [v] sympathising heartily, as I do, with Ireland and her people. Perhaps this book, written as it is in such a broad and just spirit, may help to foster mutual feelings of respect and toleration among Irish people of different parties, and may teach them to love and admire what is great and noble in their history, no matter where found. This indeed was one of the objects I kept steadily in view while writing it. When a young citizen of Limerick and another of Derry read the account given here of the two memorable sieges, I hope it Is not too much to expect that the reader in each case, while feeling a natural pride in the part played by his own ancestors, will be moved to a just and generous admiration for those of the other side who so valiantly defended their homes. And the History of Ireld, though on the whole a very sad history, abounds in records of heroic deeds and heroic endurance, like those of Drry and Limerick, which all Irish people of th epresent day ought to look back to with pride, and which all youn persons should be taught to reverence and admire.   Though the book has been written for children, I venture to exprss a hope that it may be found sufficiently interesting and instructive for the perusal of older people.
     The Illustrations, all of which relate to the several parts of the text where they occur, and all of which have been selected with great care, will be found, I trusts, to add to the interest of the book. /
     No effort has been spared to secure truthfulness and accuracy of statement; the utmost care has been taken throughout to consult and compare original authorities; and nothing has been accepted on second-hand evidence. [vi]
      It may be unnecessary to say that, except in the few places where I quote, the narrative all through this book is original, and not made up by adapting or copying the texts of other modern Irish Histories. For good or bad I preferred my own way of telling the story. (pp.v-vii.)
     
    P. W. J. Lyre-na-Grena, Leinster-Road, Rathmines, Dublin, November 1897.
     
    Note: Illustrations incl. port. of Henry Flood in Barrington’s Historic Memoirs, vol. 2, p.106; Lord Charlemont, port., in profile, in NGI; Grattan’s house in Tinnehinch in 1824, in engraving by George Petrie (Brewer’s Beauties of Ireland); Luke Gardiner; Lord Mountjoy, who died with 300 militia at New Ross, on which occasion the lives of two or three thousand peasants were also extinguished; J. P. Curran by S. Freeman, and engraving based on it by same.
    Of J. P. Curran: ‘Curran was always engaged on the side of the prisoners; and though he did not often succeed in having them released, his brilliant and fearless speeches were wonderful efforts of genius.’ (p.472 [?Gwynn].) Further notes that J. P. Curran succeeded in staying the execution of Tone on legal grounds after his attempted suicide. See also under Robert Emmet [supra].

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    Outlines of the History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1905, 1910) - Joyce writes of Parnell: ‘For a considerable period, very unfavourable rumours about Mr. Parnell’s personal character had been going about: but he persisted in declaring them false, and that when the proper time came he would prove them so. But when the proper time did come, it was found that [145] they were all true. On this, the Irish Catholic bishops and the majority of his follwers, declared that they would no longer have him as leader: but a section of the nationalists took his part and determined that they would still follow him. So the Nationalist part became broken up into two sections, Parnellites and Anti-Parnellites, who were bitterly opposed to each other [...] later the bishops issued a manifesto declaring Parnell and unworthy leader, and appealing to the people to sever themselves from him.’ (p.146). Further [on the Wyndam Act]: ‘By this Act a free grant (or “Bonus” as it is usually called) of twelve millions was given by the Government to enable the two parties to come to an agreement [...] A vast sum was also set apart for lending to tenants, to eable them to buy, which they are to pay back in installments, as in the Ashbourne Acts. This Act is working very successfully. Great numbers of tenants are buying out their farms, so that in the a few years most of the land of the country will belong to “Peasant Proprietors”. Provision is also [159] made to enable the landlords to keep their own homes and demesnes, and live in Ireland - a thing much to be desired. So far (i.e. to 1905) nearly all the landlords who have sold out have elected to remain.’

    [Sect. 316:] ‘From this brief narrative of the events of the last thirty years or so, it will be seen that much has been done to remedy the evil effects of the unjust and ruinous laws described at pages 100 to 103. But much remains to be done, both by the Government and by the people themselves. On the part of the people, what they need most of all is to avoid intemperance, and to help the cause of Temperance by every means in their power. Another most necessary thing is that those of all parties and religions, throughout the four provinces, should unite for the common good, and should pay more attention to the encouragement and development of industries, so as to give increased opportunities of employment to the working classes, and induce them to remain at home. This desirable state of things is slowly but surely coming about: matters are gradually improving year by year; and those who have the welfare of the country at heart entertain strong hopes that the time is not far off when the people of Ireland will be prosperous and contented.’ [END; pp.159-60.]

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    References
    Justin McCarthy, ed., Irish Literature (Washington: University of America 1904) gives extracts from Old Celtic Romances; A Child’s History of England; also ‘Oisin in Tirnanoge’.

    See also Irish Book Lover, Vols. 2, 3, 4 [per index].

    Robert Hogan, ed., Dictionary of Irish Literature (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1979), one of the most extraordinary Irish scholars, b. Ballyorgan, Co. Limerick; ed priv. and TCD; LL.D., 1870; held post as Princ. of Commissioners’ Training Coll., Dublin, till 1893; his Old Celtic Romances (1879) incl. the translation used by Tennyson in his ‘Voyage of Maeldune’ (1880); cited in Robert Hogan, ed., Dictionary of Irish Literature (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press 1979), under ‘P.W. Joyce’ [see OCEL].

    Margaret Drabble, Oxford Companion of English Literature, ed.(OUP: 1985), refers to the above works, together with Social History of Ireland (1903-20), as all being highly influential in the Irish revival. For material from the Small Social History of Ireland (1906), including remarks on high kingship, &c., P W Joyce A Small[er] Social History of Ancient Ireland (1906), being a synopsis of his Longer work of that title. [Note var. title History of Irish Names of Places (1869).]

    Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2, notes that he shared in the belief that the ‘ancient’ music of Ireland had to be transposed if it was to survive [Seamus Deane, ed.] 76; Ancient Music of Ireland (Dublin: McGlashen 1873), cited in ‘Traditional Songs’ bibl. in ‘Poetry and Song’ Sect., 98; Joyce, ‘Gas from a Burner’, ‘... Talk about Irish Names of Places!’, 772n.

    Belfast Public Library holds standard works including Old Celtic Romances, Child’s History of Ireland, Irish Placenames, Illustrated History, and Irish Grammar (1896); Concise History of Ireland (1897); Atlas and Geography of Ireland (1903); English As We Speak it in Ireland (1910); Irish names of Places, 3 vols. [n.d.]; Social History of Ireland (1912); Story of Ancient Irish Civilisation (1907); The Wonders of Ireland ... papers (1911); but no fiction. Belfast Linen Hall holds Irish Battles and Battlefields (188[?], reprint).

    Ulster Univ. Library, Morris Collection, holds A Child’s History of Ireland (1910); Atlas and Geography of Ireland, IV (c.1883); English as We Speak It in Ireland (1910); A Grammar of the Irish Language (1892); Irish Local Names Explained (1902); Old Celtic Romances (1907); Outlines of the History of Ireland ... to 1905 (?1894).

    Herbert Bell Library (Belfast) holds The Wonders of Ireland (London 1911); A Smaller Social History (London 1906); A Concise History of Ireland (Dublin 1900); Old Irish Folk Music & Songs (London 1909); Irish Local Names Explained [n.d.].

    Whelan Books (Cat. 32) lists Concise History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1908 (Gill 1912).

    Hyland Book (Cat. 220; 1996]The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places, 3 vols. (1910, 1912, 1913) [prob. err. 1910, 1912]; another edn., 2 vols. [complete to date] (1902); Hyland Books (Cat. 214) lists A Short History of Gaelic Ireland from the earliest times to 1608 [n.d.]

    Roberts Wholesale Books lists Reissue of P. W. Joyce Old Celtic Romances, 474pp., incl. ‘The Children of Lir’, ‘The Pursuit of Dermat and Grania’, ‘Connla of the Golden Hair and the Fairy Maiden’, ‘Oisin in Tirnanoge ’; preface giving background and provenance of the tales and a section of explanatory notes [£8.99].

    Patrick MacGahern Books (Cat. 169; 2004) lists Philip’s Handy Atlas of the Counties of Ireland, revised by P. W. Joyce, with consulting index (London: George Philip & Sons 1881), 12mo., 33 maps, 41pp.

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    Notes
    John Colgan (1590-1658): Joyce cites Colgan on the superstitious belief in the sidhe (fairies), and adds a ftn. to the effect that this superstition is shown to live on in Scotland, as evidenced by [Walter Scott’s] Rob Roy, Chap. XXVIII [n.H.].

    D. A. Simmons supplied the collection of words and phrases incorporated in Joyce’s English as We Speak It, previously printed as A List of Peculiar Words and Phrases Formerly in Common Use in County Armagh Together with Expressions at One Time Current in South Donegal (Dublin 1890), 20pp. [cited in Michael Montgomery, ‘The Lexicography of Hiberno-English’, in Irish Studies: Working Papers, 93:3, Nova Southwestern, 1993, pp.20-35; p.26.]

    Eoin MacNeill dismisses the ‘Rob Roy’ theory of Irish clan systems - so-named after Walter Scott’s novel - and related versions of Irish society are dismissed as ‘moonshine’, with particular reference to P. W. Joyce, in the preface to his Early Irish Laws and and Institutions (Dublin: Burns Oates & Washbourne 1933).

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    W. B. Yeats: ‘The Host of the Air’, printed as ‘The Stolen Bride’ in The Bookman (1 Oct. 1893), with notes citing Dr. Joyce: ‘of all the different goblins [air demons] were most dreaded by the people. They lived among clouds, and mists, and rocks, and hated the human race with the utmost malignity’ (from ‘Fergus O’Mara and the Demons’, in Good and Pleasant Reading, 1892; also selected by Yeats in Irish Fairy Tales, 1892; see A. N. Jeffares, New Commentary on the Poems of W. B. Yeats, 1984, p.49.]

    A. P. Graves: Graves sent Tennyson a copy of Joyce’s Old Celtic Romances in response to a request for an Irish subject for a poem; Tennyson produced “The Voyage of Maeldun” from it. (See Robert Graves, Return to All That, 1930).

    Baile atha Cliath: Cliath said to be cognate with clitellae, an ox-pannier, and the Fr. clai, a hurdle, wattle, or screen. (Joyce, Irish Names of Places, Vol. 1, Pt. 3, Cap. 5. [George A. Little, Dublin Before the Vikings, 1957, p.61.]

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