[Sir] Charles Gavan Duffy (1816-1903)


Life
b. 12 April 1816, Monaghan town, son of a shopkeeper with town houses and ‘town parks’, and bleaching field; his father died when he was 10; received the maternal name of Gavan, his maternal frandfather having been known as the “King of Augherbog”; ed. at hedge-school, his first schoolmaster being Neil Quin; [note var. Monaghan Public School, DIH], and later at the Presbyterian school of Rev. Bleckey; elected secretary to Liberal Club that greeted Lord Musgrave, Viceroy, in Monaghan, 1834;
 
went to Dublin as a sub-editor with Dublin Morning Register, ed. Michael Staunton, working alongside John Blake Dillon; met James Clarence Mangan and others; returned to Belfast as Catholic journalist working on [var. editing] the Belfast Vindicator; April, 1839; returned [to Dublin] to keep Michaelmas Term at King’s Inns, Nov. 1839; attended courses at Belfast Academical Institute in 1840 [worked in library?]; returned to Dublin to work on The Mountain, an organ of O’Connell associated with his Catholic parliament;
 
co-fnd of The Nation with Thomas Davis and Dillon, in 15 Oct. 1842; compiled The Spirit of the Nation (1843) from contributions to the Nation; tried at state trials with O’Connell, 1843; defended by Whiteside, found guilty; the verdict quashed by order of House of Lords, 1844; called to bar, 1845, but did not practise law; his press pseuds. including ‘The O’Donnell’; ed. with preface, The Ballad Poetry of Ireland (1845), embodying the folkloric ideas of Herder in combining older and newer material;
 
founded Irish Confederation with others; recruits Mitchel as writer-manager of the Nation on death of Davis; split with Mitchel arising from the latter’s advocacy of guerrilla war in Ireland, Jan. 1848; reunited on outbreak of revolution in France, Feb. 1848; Duffy and others arrested, 9 July; 1848; the Nation also suppressed, July 1848; held in prison with Thomas Meagher; tried for sedition and acquitted after four attempts to secure conviction; Duffy released, April, 1849;
 
revived The Nation within three months of his release, purging it of French revolutionism and preached constitutional agitation in its columns; accompanied Carlyle on tour of Ireland, 1849, and later published Conversations with Carlyle (1892); failed to attend Mangan’s funeral, June 1849; formed an alliance with George Henry Moore of the ‘Irish Brigade’, leading to the foundation of Irish Independent Party or Independent Opposition, Aug. 1852, thus bringing together the voting power of 50 MPs, including Sadleir and Keogh;
 
fnd. Tenant Right League seeking ‘Three Fs’ (Fair Rent, Fixity of Tenure, and Free Sale’), with Frederick Lucas and others, 1850, inviting executive of Tenant Protection Societies to join [see under Lalor]; elected New Ross MP in general election of 1852; Archbishop Cullen attacks Independent Irish Party as being ‘independent of and in opposition to all British governments’); John Sadleir and William Keogh accepted office as Solicitor General and Jnr. Lord of Treasury respectively from Gladstone in deal to unseat Conservatives; Independent Party loses credit and shrinks to half; Lucas’s complaints to Rome about Cullen scandalised many;
 
Cullen sends Fr. Doyle, who managed Duffy’s campaign in New Ross, to remote hillside parish; death of Lucas, 1855; Duffy emig. Australia, Autumn 1855 [CAB err. 1856], with a valedictory editorial in The Nation proclaiming that ‘there seems to be no more hope for the Irish Cause than for the corpse on the dissecting-table’; practiced law in Australia; became minister of public works, Victoria, 1857; estab. The Advocate, (Melbourne, c.1862); app. PM of Victoria 1871; resigned when defeated, assorting right to dissolve parliament, which Viscount Canterbury refused;
 
 
offered knighthood, refused; accepted, and knighted K.C.M.G., May 1873; elected speak of the Legislative Assembly, 1876; deemed largely instrumental over many years in setting up the federation of Australia states and in opposition to Parke, an aim finally realised on 1 Jan. 1901 with the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia, arising from the Federal Convention of which his son and namesake was secretary; returned to London, 1880; living at Chiswick, 1890; lent letters of J. C. Mangan to W. B. Yeats, 1890; arranged meeting of Parnell and Carnavon, with Justin McCarthy as intermediary, 1885; birth of fourth child and consequent death of third wife, Louise, Feb. 1889; privately supported the anti-Parnellite faction after the divorce, Dec. 1889; returned to London sporadically to act as president of the Irish Literary Society, Southwark, 1892;
 
founded New Irish Library and entered into conflict with Yeats over its contents as reflecting the mentality of the older man (‘a domineering obstinacy and an entire lack of any culture that I could recognise’); enlisted support of Archbishop Walsh in issuing the Library, with a book by Thomas Davis, which automatically sold 10,000, but afterwards failed, though Duffy’s introduction on the injustices of the Stuart govt. of Ireland was praised by The Pall Mall Gazette as ‘a brilliant and powerful indictment’;
 
spent summers in Nice from c.1890, residing at Villa Guillory and other addresses such as Villa Marguerite, Villa Francenelli, [also 12 Bezlebarb Victor Negs.?]; corresponded with Lecky, Forster, and Sir Horace Plunkett; consulted by Bryce on bi-cameral system; four of his poems were incl. in MacDermott’s rev. edn. of The Spirit of the Nation (1894); he remonstrated against the refusal of Dublin Corporation to raise commemorative statue of Gladstone (Westminster Gazette, 1894); refused to join the Catholic and anti-Semitic party in Dreyfus affair;
 
d. Nice 9 Jan.; survived by seven sons and four daughters, incl. Susan, Harriet and Geraldine from his second marriage, the first-named keeping house in Sydney and later in London; remains brought by ship to Dublin, 26th Feb. 1903;
 
requiem service held by Archbishop Walshe at pro-Cathedral, Dublin; bur. Glasnevin Cemetery; his principal Works are Young Ireland, Part I (1880), and Do, Part II (1883); The League North and South (1886); Thomas Davis (1890);My Life in Two Hemispheres, 2 vols. (1898); there is a biography by the Australian writer Cyril Pearl; his son became a minister of the Irish State; his youngest daughter Louise was present in the GPO at Easter 1916 and taught in an Irish-language school after. CAB ODNB PI JMC DIB DIW DIH MKA RAF DUB OCIL FDA [See Lineage.]

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Works
History & Memoir
  • Young Ireland: A Fragment of Irish History, 1840-1850 (London & NY: Cassell, Petter, Galpin 1880-83); Do., another edn. (NY: Appleton Press 1881), viii, 788pp. [‘Pt. II in preparation’], and Do. final revision, ill., 2 vols. in 1 (London: T Fisher Unwin, Paternoster Sq 1896) [numbered as two], 191, 236pp. [also 2 indices];
  • Four Years of Irish History 1845-1849 (London & NY: Cassell, Petter, Galpin 1883) [being Pt. II of Young Ireland, 1880; now issued as 2 vols. in one] (London & NY: Cassell, Petter, Galpin 1884-87), xvi, 196pp., and (xiv), 240pp.; Do. [Irish People’s Edn.], 2 vols. (Dublin: M. H. Gill: Dublin, 1884-87); Do., [another edn., ‘final revision’], 2 vols. (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1896), 8o.; Do. [rep. edn.] (NY: Da Capo Press [q.d.]);
  • A Bird’s Eye View of Irish History (1882);
  • The League of North and South: An Episode in Irish History 1850-54 (London: Chapman & Hall 1886);
  • A Short Life of Thomas Davis (London: Kegan Paul, Trench 1890);
  • Conversations with Carlyle, with MS letters from Sir Charles and Susan Gavan Duffy (London: Sampson, Low 1892); & Do. [new edn.] (London, Paris, Melbourne: Cassell & Co. 1896), xii, 261pp., ill. [port.; see details]
  • My Life in Two Hemispheres, 2 vols. (London: Fisher Unwin 1898; rep. 1903), xi, 335, xi, 395pp., ports; John Whyte, intro., rep. [Do.] (Shannon: IAP 1969).
Anthologies
  • Ed., The Spirit of the Nation: Ballads and Songs by the writers of the Nation with Original and Ancient Music (Dublin: James Duffy 1843, &c.); Do., ed. Martin MacDermott [2nd enl. edn.] (Dublin & London 1882); Do. [rep. of 1845 Edn.] (Poole: Woodstock Books [Cassell] 1998), 347pp.;
  • ed., Ballad Poetry of Ireland ((Dublin: Duffy 1845), and Do. intro. by L.R.N Ashley [facs. of the 40th edn., 1869] (NY: Delmar Scholars Facs. & Reps. 1973).
Miscellaneous
  • Articles incl. ‘The Road to Australian Federation’, in Contemporary Review (Feb. 1890) [q.pp.];
  • ‘Conversations with Carlyle’, in The Contemporary Review, Vol. 61 (1892 Jan./June)] (London: Isbister & Co. 1892) - 3 pts.: pp.[120]-152, [279]-304, [430]-608] - later rep. as Conversations with Carlyle (London 1892) [as infra].
  • [ed.,] Thomas Davis: The Memoirs of an Irish Patriot 1840-46 (London: Fisher Unwin 1892);
  • The Prospects of Irish Literature for the People (London: priv. 1893);
  • ‘What Irishmen May Do For Irish Literature’, in The Revival of Irish Literature, Addresses by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Dr George Sigerson, Dr Douglas Hyde (London: Fisher Unwin 1894; rep. Lemma Publ. Corp. 1973);
  • ‘Personal Memories of James C. Mangan’, Dublin Review, Vol. 142, No.285 (April 1908).
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Bibliographical details
Conversations with Carlyle, orig. in The Contemporary Review, Vol. 61 (1892 Jan./June)] (London: Isbister & Co. 1892) [3 pts.: pp.[120]-152, [279]-304, [430]-608], afterwards as Do. (London: Sampson, Low 1892); & Do. [new edn.] (London, Paris, Melbourne: Cassell & Co. 1896). [See extract under Quotations - infra.]

Duffy & Co. Edns.: Charles Gavan Duffy, ed. and pref. (as C.G.D.), Thomas Davis, Literary and Historical Essays [Library of Ireland] (Dublin: James Duffy 1846), 252pp., 12o; How Ireland ought to receive the Land Act. A letter [&c.] (Dublin: J. Duffy & Sons 1881), 15pp.; A Bird’s-eye view of Irish History [enl. and rev. edn.] (Dublin: Duffy & Sons 1882), pp.viii, 281.

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New Irish Library series included works by Charles Gavan Duffy, Four Years of Irish History (1883), A Short Life of Thomas Davis (1896), and My Life in Two Hemispheres (1898), as well as his Thomas Davis, The Patriot Parliament, ed. and intro. Duffy (1893); Standish James O’Grady, The Bog of Stars (1893); Michael McDermott, ed., The New Spirit of the Nation (1894); A P Graves, ed., The Irish Song Book (1894); Douglas Hyde, The Story of Gaelic Literature (1895); John Todhunter, The Life of Sarsfield (1895); Michael McDonagh, Bishop Doyle (JKL), A Biography and Historical Study (1896) [See DIH; not err. attribution of The New Spirit of the Nation to A P Graves.]

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Manuscripts Sources incl. Gavan Duffy Papers (NLI); Gavan Duffy Papers (Royal Irish Academy); Gavan Duffy Papers (BL); Gavan Duffy Papers (Latrobe Library, Melbourne); Ars Vitae (courtesy of Dr. Leon O’Broin); Parkes Papers (MAchell Library, Sydney); Lang Papers (Mitchell Library, Sydney).

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Criticism
  • W. P. Ryan, The Irish Literary Revival (1894; rep. Lemma 1970) [ infra];
  • Matthew Russell, in ‘Poets I have Known’, 6, “Sir Charles G. Duffy” (Irish Monthly 31, 1903) [infra];
  • ‘Charles Gavan Duffy’ [obituary notice], in Irish Book Lover [q.d.]; also a bibliography by James M. Douglas, in Irish Book Lover, Vol VII, June-July 1916, pp.177-180, with with addendum Ibid ., , 8 (1916).
  • Leon Ó Broin, Charles Gavan Duffy: Patriot and Statesman (Dublin: Duffy 1967);
  • Leon Ó Bróin, Protestant Nationalists in Revolutionary Ireland (1985) [infra];
  • J. H. Whyte, The Independent Party (Oxford: OUP 1958);
  • Kevin B. Nowlan, Charles Gavan Duffy and the Repeal Movement [O'Donnell lectures. 7] (Dublin: NUI [1963], 22pp.
  • Malcolm Brown, ‘Besides the Sickbed: Carlyle, Duffy, Dr. Cullen’, in Politics of Irish Literature: From Thomas Davis to W. B. Yeats (London: George Allen & Unwin 1972), Chap. 8 [p.116ff., et passim];
  • Cyril Pearl, The Three Lives of Charles Gavan Duffy (Dublin: O’Brien Press 1979), [7], 237pp. ill., ports. [infra];
  • George O’Brien, Charles Gavan Duffy, ‘Rebel and Statesman’, in O’Brien and Peter Roebuck, eds., Nine Ulster Lives (Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation 1992), pp.99-110.
  • Brian Lambkin, ‘Thomas D’Arcy McGee and Charles Gavan Duffy’s “The Irish Chiefs”: Diasporic Trajectories of a Young Ireland’, in The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, 31, 1 [Irish-Canadian Connections / Les liens irlando-canadiens] (Spring 2005), pp.98-107.
 

See also Thomas Keneally, The Great Shame: A Story of the Irish in the Old World and the New (London: Chatto & Windus 1998)

 

On Louise Duffy - see Louise Gavan Duffy, ‘Insan GPO, Cumann na mBan’ in 1916 and University College, Dublin, F. X. Martin (Dublin 1967); Lil Conlon, Cumann na mBan and the Women of Ireland (Cork: Lil Conlon [i.e, published by the author] 1969), 324pp.; and Margaret McCurtain & Donnacha Ó Corráin, Women in Irish Society, Dublin: Arlen Press 1974).

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References
Charles A. Read, The Cabinet of Irish Literature, [1876-78]; this source stresses his early poverty; reports a rumour at the time of writing of his intention of re-entering public life in Ireland; selects ‘A Lay Sermon’; ‘The Irish Chiefs’ [‘Oh to have lived like an Irish chief, when hearts were fresh and true / And many thought, like a pealing bell, would quickening them through and through’]; ‘Innishowen’ [‘God bless the gray mountains of dark Donegal / God bless Royal Aileach, the pride of them all / For she sits evermore like a queen on her throne / and smiles on the valleys of green Innishown; and fair are the valleys of Green Innishowen’ / and hardy the fishers that call them their own– / A race that nor traitor nor coward have known / Enjoy the fair valleys of Green Innishowen ... No purer of old was the tongue of the Gael / The charging aboo made the foreigner quail ... Oh flourish ye homesteads of kind Inishowen ...’]; ‘The patriot’s Bride [link’d hand in hand, two equal, loving friends, true husband and true wife’; but note stanza five, ‘To wake the old weird world that sleeps in Irish lore; / The strains sweet foreign Spenser sung / By Mulla’s shore; / Dear curran’s airy thoughts, like purple birds / That shine and soar; / Tone’s fiery hopes, and all the deathless vows / that Grattan swore; / The song that once our own dear Davis sung - ah, / me! to sing no more.’]

Dictionary of National Biography, started The Nation as proprietor and editor, 1842; produced The Library of Ireland, a shilling series of Irish biography, poetry and criticism.

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Justin McCarthy, gen. ed., Irish Literature (Washington: University of America 1904) gives ‘a Dispute with Carlyle,’ from Conversations with Carlyle [as given under Quotations - supra]; also ‘The Irish Rapparees’, ‘The Irish Chiefs’, and others including ‘The Muster of the North’, dramatising the Rebellion of 1641, and disavowing ‘Pity’. [Stanza 3: ‘Come, trample down their robber rule, and smite its venal spawn,/ Their foreign laws, their foreign Church, their ermine and their lawn,/ With all the specious fry of fraud that robbed us of our own;/ And plant our ancient laws again beneath our lineal throne.’ Stanza 4: ‘Pity! no, no, you dare not, priest - not you, our Father, dare/ Preach to us now that godless creed - the murderer’s blood to spare;/ To Spare his blood, while tombless still our slaughtered kin implore/ “Graves and revenge” from Gobbin cliffs and Carrick’s bloody shore.’ Note prefatory remark to “Muster of the North”: ‘We deny and have always denied the alleged massacre of 1641. But that the people rose under their chiefs, seized the English towns and expelled the English settlers, and in doing so committed many excesses, is undeniable - as is equally their desperate provocation. The ballad here printed is not meant as an apology for these excesses, which we condemn and lament, but as a true representation of the feelings of the insurgents in the first madnes of success.’ (‘Author’s note’.) JMC adds further impartial footnotes, viz., the line ‘Pity! ...’, is annotated, ‘Leland, the Protestant historian, states that the Catholic priests labored zealously to moderate the excesses of war’ and frequently protected the English by concealing them in their places of worship and even under their altars’; further, ‘Gobbin’ is explained as ‘the scene of the massacre of the unoffending inhabitants of Island Magee by the garrison of Carrickfergus.’

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Patrick Rafroidi, Irish Literature in English, The Romantic Period, 1789-1850, Vol 1 (1980), cites Duffy under William Smith O’; also, remarks: ‘a detestable article by one Father Kenyon, destined to turn traitor in 1848, that Duffy was weak enough to authorise for publication, channelled the feelings of grief [at the death of O’Connell] against the Young Ireland movement.’ (cp.90.)

Roy Foster, Modern Ireland 1600-1972 (1988), p. 311 [bio-notes as above]; bibl., The League of North and South (1886); Young Ireland (1880-83) written ‘to ensure that succeeding generations viewed mid-century Ireland through fin de siecle prism’; Pres. London Irish Lit. Society, 1892. d. Nice, buried Dublin.

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Mark Storey, Poetry and Ireland since 1800: A Source Book (1988), pp.69-73, reprints an extract from ‘The Revival of Irish Literature’, with note, it [Revival &c., 1894] consisted of four address, two by Duffy under this general heading, given respectively before the Irish Literary Society in London, in July 1892 and June 1893; one by Sigerson, delivered at the Irish National Literary Society in Dublin, entitled ‘Irish literature, Its Origin, Environment, and Influence’; and Douglas Hyde’s ‘The necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’, delivered before the Irish national Literary Society in Dublin, 25 Nov. 1892 [No. 7]. (Story, op. cit., p.73.)

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2, selects Nation ‘Editorial’ [1248-50]; ‘Thomas Moore’ [1250-54]; ‘Mr Lever’s “Irish” Novels’ [1255-65; see RX Lever, and note that this ‘scurrilous attack’ on Lever is ascribed to Carleton in Malcolm Brown, Politics of Irish Literature, 1972, p.65]; and political references at 1174, 1176, 1177; 1299, BIOG. Also, cultural nationalism, [1]; [on Davis, see RX, 2]; his The Ballad Poetry of Ireland (1845) more popular than MacCarthy’s Book of Irish Ballads (1846), and rivalled The Spirit of the Nation in popular esteem, reached 39th ed. in 21 years; ‘Poetry … finally achieved populairity by allying itself with music and disengaging from any serious attempt to deal with Irish experience outside the conventions imposed by the powerful, if callow, demands of the Young Ireland movement’ [Deane, Introd., p.3]; mostly taken from what Duffy calls in his Introduction ‘Anglo-Irish Ballads ... the production of educated men, with English tongues but Irish hearts’, for ‘no stranger ever did or can write the popular poetry of any people’; ‘essentially [Irish] in character and spirit’; the Introduction of The Spirit includes an encomium of Mangan as pure Irish in a way that Moore was not [5]; Duffy writes at length [acc. ed.] about the authors in the anthology ‘[writing out of] distinct and intrinsic nationality ... [instilling] the ancient and hereditary spirit of the country into all that is genuine in our modern poetry ... the ordinary effect of native poetry [defined as] love of home and homely associations, which, elevated and spiritualised, becomes love of country’.

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2 [cont.], On Hiberno-English as the necessary medium of Irish literature: ‘the soul of the country, stammering its passionate grief and hatred in a strange tongue, loved still to utter them in its old familiar idioms and cadences. Uttering them, perhaps, with more piercing earnestness, because of the impediment; and winning, out of the very difficulty, an unconscious grace and triumph’ [the foregoing all in Seamus Deane’s introductory essay to Field Day, p.20; ‘PoliticalWritings’]; example of notes furnished to poems [here Mairgread ní Chealleadh, O’Keeffe’s beautiful mistress], [42], remarks on Davis and Young Ireland [117, and see RX Davis]; Thomas Francis Meagher ‘proud to call [Duffy] my friend’, [123]; Fintan Lalor’s letter addressed to the editor of the Nation, 24 April 1847, [165]; Duffy’s attempt to get Meagher elected in Waterford in early 1848 opposed by Mitchel as a concession to constitutional politics, [177n.]; Michael Davitt, ‘the great organ Duffy, Davis, and Dillon had founded’, [201]; John O’Leary [in Recollections, 1896, Chp. VII] refers to the life of Davis ‘written by his co-labourer and friend, Sir CG Duffy [Thomas Davis, The Memoirs of an Irish Patriot 1840-46 (Fisher Unwin 1892), [253]; O’Leary, ‘Of Duffy we, of course, all thought well, though we were not without a certain thought that, if he had not abandoned the National programme, he was at least inclined to put it somewhat in the background for the time being’ (also in Recollections, 1896, Chp. VII), [255].

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2 [cont.]: Duffy’s emigration in 1856 [recte 1855], [256n.]; O’Donovan Rossa, Prison Life, 1874, ‘Charles Gavan Duffy left the country in 1854 [recte 1855], saying he left the cause of freedom a corpse on the dissecting table’, [262]; John Devoy, ‘Charles Gavan Duffy was a pretty good speaker, but he wrote better’ (Recollections, 1929), [266]; Davitt advocates renewal of Land War more on lines of Lalor’s principles than those of Duffy’s Tenant League (1850) (Fall of Feudalism, 1904), [276]; ‘treachery and Archbishop Cullen had killed the hopes of Duffy and Lucas in the fifties’ (Davitt, Feudalism), [277]; ALSO, Lever’s early novels with their romantic yet decorous pranks, their dashing military capers, and endless plagiarisms so skillfully exposed by Charles Gavan Duffy [WJ McCormack, ed.), [FDA2 840] NOTE also Davis’s review of Duffy’s Ballad Poetry of Ireland, At last we are beginning to see what we are, and what is our destiny ... &c. [see Duffy, RX supra.] FDA2, The Tenant League, founded by Gavan Duffy, in 1850, aimed at the famous three Fs - fair rent, fixity of tenure, and free sale. Weakened by defection of Sadlier and Keogh; finally destroyed by withdrawal of clerical support [259]. See Charles Gavan Duffy’s book on the Tenant League, The League North and South, An Episode in Irish History 1850-54 (London 1886); and note that in Justin McCarthy, Irish Literature (1904), the defection of Justice Keogh from the Independent Party is given as the reason for Duffy’s departure in disgust from Ireland. Note that Charles Gavan Duffy calls Captain Rock [by Moore] a ‘quasi-history’ and part of the education of a patriot in Life in Two Hemispheres [?source]. (See also under Yeats: ‘In seeking to advance the cause of Irish literature, he collided with an aspiring writer called W. B. Yeats. No biography has appeared.’)

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A. N. Jeffares & Anthony Kamm, eds., An Irish Childhood, An Anthology (London: Collins 1987), contains a passage entitled ‘Schooling for a Patriot’, from Life in Two Hemispheres (1898).

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Library Catalogues
British Library holds [1] Ireland’s dark spot. A retort to Sir C. Gavan Duffy’s attack on the Irish Church and Protestant legislation in Ireland under the Irish and Imperial Parliaments, appearing in the Nineteenth Century Magazine. London: Oakley Walbrook, 1885. 32p; 21cm. [2] Literary and Historical Essays. [The editor’s preface signed: C. G. D., i.e. Charles Gavan Duffy.]. pp.252. James Duffy: Dublin, 1846. 12o. [3] The Patriot Parliament of 1689. With its statutes, votes and proceedings ... Edited with an introduction by the Hon. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. pp.xcv. 172. T. Fisher Unwin: London; Sealy, Bryers & Walker: Dublin; P. J. Kenedy: New York, 1893. 8o. [4] A bird’s-eye view of Irish History (enlarged and ... revised). pp.viii. 281. Duffy & Sons: Dublin, 1882. 16o. [5] Address ... on popular errors concerning Australia at home and abroad. Melbourne, 1866. 8o. [6] An Australian Policy. Speech [... etc.] Melbourne, 1872. 8o. [7] Australia at the bar of public opinion in England ... A lecture [... etc.] Melbourne, [1860.] 12o. [8] Conversations with Carlyle. Title New edition. pp.x. 261. Sampson Low & Co.: London, 1892. 8o. pp.xii. 261. Cassell & Co.: London, 1896. 8o. [9] Guide to the Land Law of Victoria. pp.31. Harrison & Sons: London, 1862. 8o. [10] Guide to the Land Law of Victoria. [With a map.]. pp.31. John Ferres: Melbourne, 1862. 8o. [11] Guide to the Land Law of Victoria. Second edition. Melbourne, 1862. 8o. [12] How Ireland ought to receive the Land Act. A letter [... etc.] pp.15. J. Duffy & Sons: Dublin, 1881. 8o. [13] My Life in Two Hemispheres [... etc.] 2 vols. T. Fisher Unwin: London, 1898. 8o. [14] Notes in Europe, by an Australian Politician. A lecture. pp.11. Melbourne, 1867. 8o. [15] Policy of the new Government. Speech [... etc.] Melbourne, 1871. 8o. [16] Report on Organization, and Instructions for the formation and government of Confederate Clubs. pp.12. Dublin, 1847. 8o. [17] Short Life of Thomas Davis. pp.250. 1896. [18] The Ballad Poetry of Ireland. Edited by C. G. D. Third edition. Title Fifth edition. Title Thirty-ninth edition. Title Fortieth edition. Dublin, 1845. 12o. Dublin, 1845. 12o. Dublin; London [printed], 1866. 16o. London, 1869. 16o. [19] The ballad poetry of Ireland. Edited by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. A facsimile reproduction of the fortieth edition, 1869 [... etc.] Title [Another copy.]. Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, 1973. ISBN 0 8201 1116 3 pp.xiv, 244. 23 cm. [20] The Creed of ‘The Nation.’ A profession of confederate principles. pp.15. Dublin, 1848. 8o. [21] The Land Law of Victoria (Australia). London, 1862. 18o. [22] The League of North and South. An episode in Irish history. 1850-1854. pp.xvi. 400. Chapman & Hall: London, 1886. 8o. [23] The New Irish Library. (Edited by Sir C. G. Duffy [... etc.]). T. Fisher Unwin: London, 1893 [... etc.] 8o. [24] The Price of Peace in Ireland. A letter to ... the Earl of Carnarvon [... etc.] pp.25. Hodges & Figgis: Dublin, [1885.] 8o. [25] The Prospects of Irish Literature for the People. An address [... etc.] pp.12. [Printed for private circulation:] London, [1893.] 4o. [26] The Revival of Irish Literature. Addresses by Sir C. G. Duffy ... Dr. G. Sigerson, and Dr. D. Hyde. pp.161. T. Fisher Unwin: London, 1894. 8o. [27] The Use and Capacity of Confederate Clubs; a lecture [... etc.] pp.17. Dublin, 1847. 8o. [28] Thomas Davis: the memoirs of an Irish patriot, 1840-1846. pp.398. Kegan Paul & Co.: London, 1890. 8o. [29] Why is Ireland poor and discontented? A lecture [... etc.] pp.24. Stillwell & Knight: Melbourne, 1870. 12o. [30] Young Ireland .. Final revision. Illustrated. T. Fisher Unwin: London, 1896. 2 vols. 8o. [31] Young Ireland. (Vol. 2. Four Years of Irish History.) A fragment of Irish History, 1840-1850. 2 vols. Cassell, Petter & Co.: London, 1880-83. 8o. [32] Young Ireland. A fragment of Irish History. Irish People’s Edition. 2 vols. M. H. Gill: Dublin, 1884-87. 8o. [33] Catalogue of Rare Books, Rare Manuscripts and Curios, the gift of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, to be exhibited by the Irish Literary Society, London, and sold for the promotion of Irish literature [... etc.] pp.16. [London, 1900.] 8o. [34] Charles Gavan Duffy and the Repeal Movement. O’Donnell lecture delivered at University College Dublin. May 1963. pp.22. National University of Ireland: Dublin, [1964.] 8o. [35] The Nation. [Edited by C. G. Duffy.] vol. 1-6. Dublin, 1842-48. fol. [36] To Sir C. G. Duffy .. A remonstrance. [Being a reply to his attack on Sir W. Shee in the book entitled, ‘League of the North and South.’] pp.24. M. H. Gill & Son: Dublin, 1886. 8o.

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Ulster Libraries
Belfast Public Library
holds Conversations with Carlyle (1896); Ballad Poetry of Ireland (1843); Duffy’s Fireside Magazine, and Duffy’s Hibernian Magazine [poss. cited as Irish Fireside/Hibernian Mags. in Denis O’Donoghue in PI, and other sources.]

Ulster Univ. Library holds Bird’s Eye View of Irish History (Duffy 1882); 281pp.; Ballad Poetry of Ireland, 43rd ed. (Duffy n.d.), 232pp. front. port.; League North and South (Chapman & Hall 1886), 400pp.; My Life in Two Hemispheres (Fisher Unwin 1903), Vol. I, xi, 335pp. Vol. 2 xi, 395pp.; Short Life of Thomas Davis, 1840-1846 (T Fisher Unwin 1895); 250pp.; Young Ireland, 2 vols. in 1 [MOR]; Ballad Poetry of Ireland, facs. rep. of 40th ed. (Duffy 1869), intro. Leonard R. N. Ashley (Delmar NY, Scholar’s Facs. & reprints 1973), xiv, 244pp; Thomas Davis, The Patriot Parliament of 1689 with its statutes, votes and proceedings, ed. with intro. by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, 3rd ed., New Irish Library (London: Fisher Unwin 1893); The Revival of Irish Literature [Duffy, Sigerson, Hyde] (NY: Lemma 1973, rep. 1894 ed. T. Fisher Unwin), 161pp.; Young Ireland, a fragment of Irish History 1840-1850 (NY: Appleton 1881).

Ulster Univ. Library, Morris Collection holds A Bird’s Eye View of Irish History (c.1884); Young Ireland, 2 vols. of 4 (1892). ADD BIBL, George O’Brien and Peter Roebuck, Nine Ulster Lives (1992).

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Notes
Trial evidence
: the case of Duffy’s article in the Belfast Vindicator was cited by R. L. Sheils in his defence of John O’Connell in State Trial of 1843.

J. S. Le Fanu took advice from Duffy on the characterisation of Patrick Sarsfield for his novel The Fortunes of Col. Turlough O’Brien (1847)

William Carleton dedicated his Tales and Sketches Illustrating the Character, Usages, Traditions, Sports and Pastimes of the Irish Peasantry (1845) to Duffy, editor of The Nation.

[Lord] John O’Hagan: for the verses by O’Hagan which C. G. Duffy reputedly murmered on his death-bed, see under O’Hagan, Notes, infra.)

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Irish Book Lover cites Duffy as giving two addresses to the Irish Literary Society, citing W. P. Ryan, The Revival of Irish Literature (1893); but see under Sigerson and Hyde - the latter pair both speaking in Leinster Hall, Dublin.

New Irish Library: Charles Gavan Duffy wrote Numerous prefaces to editions in the New Irish Library, viz., Introduction to E. M. Lynch, A Parish Providence: A Country Tale (T. Fisher Unwin 1894), pp.[vii]-xlvi, dealing with inadequacy of Irish agricultural education as testified by Miss Sharman Crawford; note that the novel is set in the Tyrol rather than in Ireland, and describes the successful economy by which the rural poor maintain their decent existence with the help of clerical and medical benefactors, in turn supporting orphans.

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Dissecting table: Duffy’s celebrated comparison of Ireland after 1855 with a corpse upon a dissecting table (cited variously by W. P. Ryan, Benedict Kiely and Seamus Deane, supra) was echoed inter alia by Justin McCarthy: ‘Ireland was now, once again, as a corpse on the dissecting table – to use an expression that more lately became famous. The king and his minister could do with her, as they well knew, pretty well what they pleased [...] the only way of making Ireland manageable would be the destruction of her separate Parliament, and by absorbing her representation into the English assemblies at Westminster. King George would seem to have made up his mind to this, from the moment when it became evident that the Irish Parliament would end by accepting the principle of Catholic Emancipation. The outbreak of the rebellion gave, unfortunately, an opportunity to the King and his ministers to carry out the scheme ... [&c.]’ (McCarthy, ‘Ireland’s Cause in England’s Parliament’, in Irish Literature, 1904, p.2,166 [article on McCarthy].)

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W. E. Forster: In his Four Years of Irish History, Charles Gavan Duffy quotes the Chief Secretary W. E. Forster from the Transactiosn of the Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends: ‘As we went along, our wonder was not that people died but that they lived: and I have no doubt whatever that in any other country the mortality would have been far greater: that many lives have been prolonged, perhaps saved, by the long apprenticeship to want in which the Irish peasant has been trained, and by that lovely touching charity which prompts him to share his scanty mean with his starving neighbour.’ (Duffy, p.431; quoted in Robert Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1972, p.23.) Kee adds a footnote that Forster was appt. Chief Sec. forty years later, and that he ‘earned the name of “Buckshot” for carrying out the planned humanitarianism of arming the Royal Irish Constabulary with buckshot rather than ball cartridges’ (idem.).

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Descendants: JOHN GAVAN DUFFY, eldest s. and only surviving child of first marriage; b. Dublin, 1844; ed. Stonyhurst and Melbourne University;. followed parents to Australia, 1859; solicitor and politician, rep. Dalhousie in Legislative Assembly, 1874-86, and 1887-1904; successively President of the Board of Land and Works, Postmaster-General in two Adminitrations; 3nd Attorney-General; devoted Catholic layman; Knight of the Papal Order of St. Gregory; m. Margaret Callan’s dg. SIR FRANK GAVAN DUFFY, eldest s. of second wife, b. in Dublin, 1852; accompanied parents to Australia in 1856; ed. Stonyhurst; grad. Melbourne University; called to Bar, 1874, appt. High Court 1913; Chief Justice, 1931; Privy Councillor and a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George; a son Charles Leonard Gavan Duffy became a barrister and Justice of the Victorian Supreme Court. CHARLES GAVAN DUFFY, second s. of second wife, was b. Dublin, 1855; ed. at St. Patrick’s College Melbourne, Stonyhurst and Melbourne University; barrister; various public offices; was secretary of the Federal Convention; drafted with others the Constitution; , Clerk of the House of Representatives 1901-1917; Clerke of the Senate 1917-1920; Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St George. PHILIP GAVAN DUFFY, third s. of second wife, b. and ed. in Melbourne; became surveyor and civil engineer; worked on railway survey in Siam; joined the Railways and Public Works Department in Western Australia; completed survey for the goldfields water supply, 1903, supplying water to arid inland areas of the State through 350 lies of pipeline. GEORGE GAVAN DUFFY, eldest child of third wife; b. Nice, ed. in France and Stonyhurst; solicitor in London; volunteered to act for Sir Roger Casement, 1916; member of the Dáil Eireann and one of the negotiators of the Treaty, 1921; Minister for Foreign Affairs; President of the Irish High Court; married A. M. Sullvan’s dg. Margaret. BRYAN and TOM GAVAN DUFFY, second and third sons of third wife; ed. in France and at Stoneyhurst; became priests in Society a Jesus and Parb Missionary Society respectively, working in S. Africa and India. LOUISE GAVAN DUFFY, only daughter of third wife; learned Irish and taught at Scoil Ide; participated in 1916 Rising; fnd. Scoil Bhride; Honorary Doctor of Laws (NUI) [as infra] (The foregoing genealogy taken from Three Lives of Charles Gavan Duffy [q.d.]; photocopy supplied by Shelley Rose, March 1998.)

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Louise Duffy, dg. Charles Gavan Duffy by his last of three wives, b. 1884; learned Irish after visiting a Gaelic League office in London in her early twenties; and became well-known educationalist with school in Stephen’s Green et al.; made tea in GPO in 1916.

Portrait: Ther is an engraved portrait of Duffy with Davis and Dillon meditating plans for The Nation, seated at a tree in the Phoenix Park, in The Course of Irish History, ed. T. W. Moody and F. X. Martin (1967); also “C. G. Duffy” by M de Carnawsky (see Anne Crookshank, Irish Portraits, Ulster Mus. 1965).

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