Franz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Charles L. Markmann (NY: Grove Press 1967).

Quoted in Susan Bazargan, ‘Mapping Gibraltar : Colonialism, Time, and Narrative in “Penelope”’, in Molly Blooms: A Polylogue on “Penelope” and Cultural Studies, ed., Richard Pearce (Wisconsin UP 1994), pp.119-38; p.125.

For him [the black man] there is only one way out, and it leads into the white world. Whence his constant preoccupation with attracting the attention of the white man, his concern with being powerful like the white man, his determined effort to acquire protective qualities - that is, the proportion of being or having that enters into the composition of an ego. ... [I]t is from within that the Negro will seek admittance to the white sanctuary. ... Ego-withdrawal as a successful defense mechanism is impossible for the Negro. He requires a white approval. (p.51.)

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