L. P. Curtis, Apes and Angels: The Irishman in Victorian Caricacture (Washington: Smithsonian Inst. 1971), p.7.

The gradual but unmistakeable transformation of Paddy, the stereotypical Irish Celt of the mid-nineteenth century, from a drunken and relatively harmless peasant into a dangerous ape-man or simianised agitator reflected a significant shift in the attitudes of some Victorians about the differences between not only Englishmen and Irishmen, but also between human beings and apes.
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