Fynes Moryson (1566-1630)

b. Cadeby, Lincolnshire; ed. Peterhouse, Cambridge, MA 1587; obtained licence to travel, 1589; visited Germany, Holland, Denmark, Poland, Italy, Switzerland, and France, 1591-95; studied at Leiden Univ.; visited Palestine, Constantinople, and Scotland, 1598; [var. Russia, Scandinavia and all Europe except Spain]; went to Ireland 1600, where his br. Richard was serving with Essex;
became private sec. to Sir Charles Blount (Lord Mountjoy; later Earl of Devonshire), on death of his predecessor; present on the field at Kinsale, and also at the submission of OHugh ’Neill at Mellifont, 1603; remained in Mountjoy’s service till the latter’s death in 1606, when he turned to writing, at first intending a history of all the countries he had visited; wrote first in Latin and translated for publication;
issued An Itinerary (London 1617), of which the first part is a brief history (‘this I write out of the Annals of Ireland printed by Camden’—1735 Edn., p.5) and the second gives an account of his soldiering in Ireland and his experience as secretary to Mountjoy, in diary form; Moryson blames the Munster undertakers for failing to put English rather than Irish tenants in place, as they had agreed; he returned to Ireland in 1613 and wrote a further account at that date which remained in a manuscript at MS in Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

Publication history ...
The Irish sections of the 1617 edition of Itinerary were reprinted by George Ewing as A Historie of Ireland [...] to which is added a Description, 2 vols. (Dublin 1735), while the unprinted MS was partially published by Charles Hughes as ‘Unpublished Chapters of Moryson’s Itinerary’ in Shakepeare’s Europe (London 1903) and more fully in Caesar Litton Falkiner in Illustrations of Irish History and Topography (London 1904), before being printed in full by Graham Kew [et al.] as The Irish Sections of Fynes Moryson’s Unpublished Itinerary (Dublin 1998).

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First edition of Itinerary (1617)
  • An Itinerary vvritten by Fynes Moryson Gent. First in the Latine tongue, and then translated by him into English: containing his ten yeeres trauell through the tvvelue dominions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland, Netherland, Denmarke, Poland, Jtaly, Turky, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Diuided into III parts. The I. part. Containeth a iournall through all the said twelue dominions: shewing particularly the number of miles, the soyle of the country, the situation of cities, the descriptions of them, with all monuments in each place worth the seeing, as also the rates of hiring coaches or horses from place to place, with each daies expences for diet, horse-meate, and the like. The II. part. Containeth the rebellion of Hugh, Earle of Tyrone, and the appeasing thereof: written also in forme of a iournall. The III. part. Containeth a discourse vpon seuerall heads, through all the said seuerall dominions [3 pts.] (London: J. Beale, dwelling in Aldersgate street, 1617), 8, 295, 301, 292pp., ill. [maps, plans, geneal. tables; double t.-p and title vignettes passim], fol. [32cm.]

    Note: This represents Parts 1-3 of a projected work of 5 parts [viz., The Reste of this Worke, as not yet fully finished, treateth of the following Heads [Chaps. 1-25 - among which Chap 11: The Commonwealth of Ireland, under which title, &c.] Part 2, together with Chap. 5 of Pt. 3, Book 3, were reprinted by Ewing at Dublin - as follows:

An History of Ireland ... (Dublin 1735 )
  • An / History / of / Ireland, / From the Year 1599, to 1603. / With a Short Narration of the State of / the Kingdom from the Year 1167. / To which is added, A / DESCRIPTION / of / Ireland. / In Two Volumes [2 vols.] (Dublin: Printed by S. Powell / For GEORGE EWING, at the Angel and Bible / in Dame-street, / Bookseller. MDCCXXXV [1735]) - see details.
Subsequent editions
  • Henry Morley, ed., “A Description of Ireland”, in Ireland Under Elizabeth and James the First, by Sir John Davies and by Fynes Moryson [sic] [The Carisbrooke Library, No. 10 (London & NY: George Routledge & Sons 1889, &c. [1890]), 445pp. 8°. [Contents: Spenser’s View of the State of Ireland (1595); Davies’s Discovery of the true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued ... (1612); and Moryson’s Description of Ireland 1599-1603.]
  • The Itinerary, in Sherratt & Hughes, eds., Shakespeare’s Europe: Unpublished Chapters of Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary, with an introduction by Charles Hughes [Publ. by permission of the President and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Oxford] (London: Sherratt & Hughes 1903), and Do. [2nd edn., with a new index, as] Shakespeare’s Europe: A Survey of the Condition of Europe at the End of the 16th century / being unpublished chapters of Fynes Moryson’s “Itinerary” (1617), with an introd. and an account of Fynes Moryson’s career by Charles Hughes (NY: Benjamin Blom [1967]), xlvi, 521pp.;
  • The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson, rep. in Caesar Litton Falkiner, Illustrations of Irish History and Topography, Mainly of the 17th century (London: Longmans Green & Co. 1904) - consisting of 3 chaps., “The Description of Ireland”, “The Commonwealth of Ireland”, and “The Manners and Customs of Ireland” [see extracts];
  • An Itinerary written by Fynes Moryson Gent., containing his ten yeers travell through the twelve dominions of Germany, Bohmerland … France, England, Scotland, and Ireland, 3 pts. (London: John Beale 1617), fol. [of which the second is entitled ‘The rebellion of Hugh Earle of Tyrone, and the appeasing thereof; written in the form of a journall’];
  • The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson, Gent., in Four Volumes [half-title]; An Itinerary, Containing his Ten Yeeres Travell through the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Switzerland, Netherland[s], Denmarke, Poland, Italy, Turkey, France, England, Scotland, & Ireland, written by Fynes Moryson, Gent., 4 vols. (Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons, Publishers to the University 1907-08) [viz., Vols. 1 & 2 in 1907; vols. 3 & 4 in 1908]. Vol. IV (MCMVIII [1908]) - t.p. verso: Printed at the University Press for Robert Maclehose & Co. Ltd., for James Maclehose & Sons, Publishers to the University of Glasgow [distrib.] London, NY & Toronto: Macmillan; London: Simpkin, Hamilton & Co.; Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes; Edinburgh: Douglas & Foulis]. Table of Contents gives "Contents of the severall Chapters contained in the Second Booke of the Third Part (Continued) [commencing with Chap III at p.1] ... Contents of the several Chapters contained in the Third Booke of the Third Part [containing Chaps. I-VI at 104ff. & 443ff.] (This volume is available at Internet Archive - online; accessed 18.09.2011.)
  • Graham Kew [et al.], ed., The Irish Sections of Fynes Moryson’s Unpublished Itinerary [Analecta Hibernica, No. 37 (Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission 1998), xii, 322pp. [25cm.; incls. report of Minister of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and Islands on the work of the Commission 1995-96.]
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Bibliographical details
An / Historie / of / Ireland, / From the Year 1599, to 1603. / With a Short Narration of the State of / the Kingdom from the Year 1167. / To which is added, A / DESCRIPTION / of / Ireland. / In Two Volumes [2 vols.] (Dublin: Printed by S. Powell / For GEORGE EWING, at the Angel and Bible / in Dame-street, / Bookseller. MDCCXXXV [1735]) [with names of subscribers incl. Henry Brook [sic], Sir Richard Cox, Robert Dillon, et al.]. Rectangular horiz. engraving [profile presum. of Eliz.II, in a medallion, supported by two putti and birds, as if cut with fretwork on a wood panel] at head of half-title, reading: The / REBELLION / of / HUGH Earl of Tyrone, / and the / Appeasing thereof; Written in form / of a Journal.

Vol. I: Book I - Chap I: Of the induction or preface to my Irish journal, and a compendious narration of how Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy (my Lord and Master of happy memory) was chosen Lord Deputy of Ireland; and of this worthy Lord’s Quality, as also of the Councils in general, by which he broke the Rebels Hearts, and gave Peace to that Troubled State. Together with his particular Actions at the End of the Year 1599. [...]

Book I - Chap. II: Of the Lord Deputy’s particular Proceedings in the Prosecution of the Rebels in the Year 1600 [p.135ff.]. On foot of p.217 - ‘The’ - anticipating The REBELLION [... &c.] title-page on the verso which, in turn, has a woodcut vignette at head-of-page [showing a peaceful harvesting with two figures harvesting], below which appears the title [as said]. Chap II: Of the beseiging of the Spaniards at Kinsale, with the Delivery of the Town to the Lord Deputy, and their Return into Spain in the same Year, 1601 [commencing in mid-page; pp.328-68 [The End of the First Volume.]

Vol. II: The REBELLION of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, &c., / A Continuation of Book II, Chap. II. Of the beseiging of the Spaniards at Kinsale, with the Delivery of the Town to the Lord Deputy, and their Return into Spain in the same Year, 1601.

“A Description of Ireland” commences at p.358 of Vol. II - after the “journal” of Mountjoy's campaign against Hugh O’Neill and his Spanish allies, concluding with a list of ‘Officers General and Provincial, Warders, Horsemen, and Footmen, as they stood at this Time of Peace.’ [pp.355-57]:

‘The longitude of Ireland extends four Degrees, from the Meridian of eleven Degrees and a half to that of fifteen and a half, and the Latitude extends also four Degrees from the Parallel of fifty four Degrees to that of fifty Degrees. In the Geographical Description I will follow Cambden as formerly. [358].
  This famous island in the Virginian Sea, is by old Writers called Ierna, Inverna, and Iris, Yuerdhen, by the English at this day Ireland, and by the Irish Bards at this Day Banno, in which Sense of the Irish word, Avicen calls it the Holy Island; besides, Plutarch of old called it Ogygia, and after him Isidore named it Scotia. This Ireland, according to the Inhabitants, is divided into two Parts, the wild Irish, and the English-Irish, living in the English Pale: But of the Kingdoms, five in number, it is divided into five Parts. [...]’ (pp.358-59.)
These wild Irish are not much unlike wild Beasts, in whole Caves, a Beast passing that Way, might perhaps find Meat, but not without Danger to be ill entertained, perhaps devoured of his insatiable Host." [Finis; p.378.]

Available at Google Books - online; accessed 19.09.2011.

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Rodolf Gottfried, ed., Prose Works of Spenser [Variorum Edn.], Vol. 10 (1949), Moryson, writing between 1617 and 1620 and before the View was printed, followed his scheme very closely, the Irish ‘will never be reformed in Religion, manners, and constant obedience, to our laws, but by the awe of the sword, and by a strong hand at last for a tyme of bridling them.’ (Cited in Charles Hughes, ed., Shakespeare’s Europe, 1903, p.195). [279] Further quotes: ‘Nothing was more frequent, then for Irishmen, in the tyme of our war with Spayne, to live in Spayne, in Rome, and in their very Seminaryes, and yet by these and like Crafty Conveyances to preserve to them and their heyres, their goods, and lands in Ireland, yea very spiritual livings for life, not rarely graunted to children for their maintenaunce in that superstitious education, most dangerous to the State.’ (Quoted in Shakespeare’s Europe, p.232).

See Paul Muldoon, “Moryson’s Fancy”, a poem that recounts a 17th-century tale of Irish children devouring the corpse of their mother .. as described by Adam Newey in a review of Maggot (Guardian, 30 Sept. 2010, Review sect., p.14.)

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A. C. Judson, Life of Spenser (1945), p.109, quotes Moryson on Lord Grey: ‘such was the Lord Grey, in the late Queen’s reign Deputy of Ireland, who knew best of all his predecessors to bridle their fierce and clamorous nation’ (Moryson, in [CL] Falkiner, p.308).

Estyn E. Evans, Irish Folk Ways (London: Routledge 1957), citing Moryson on Irish fires: ‘the chief men in their houses make fires in the midst of the room, the smoke wherof goeth out at a hole in the top thereof.’ (Description, p.231; Evans, p.62.)

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Joep Leerssen, Mere Irish & Fíor Ghael (1986): For Fynes Moryson, laziness was the root of all evils in the Irish character, making them ‘love libertie above all things, and likewise naturally … delight in musick, so as the Irish harpers are excellent.’ Fynes Moryson, An Itinerary written by Fynes Moryson Gent. (1617; rep. Glasgow: James MacLehose, 1907-08; Leerssen, p.55.

John M Breen [QUB], ‘The influence of Edmund Spenser’s View on Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary’, in Notes & Queries, Sept. 1995, pp.363-64, in which the author argues that Moryson has knowledge of MS copy of Spenser’s View; discusses the laws of Ireland; Tanistry; ‘Irish degeneracy [‘wilde Irish has a generation of poets or rather rhymers vulgarly called Bardes, who in their songs used to extoll the most bloodly licentious men, and no others, and allure their hearers, not the lave of religion and civil manners, but to outrages robberies [sic] living as outlawes, and contempt of the Magistrates and the King’s lawes.’ [Moryson, 199.]

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Muriel McCarthy, ed., Hibernia Resurgens: Catalogue of Marsh’s Library Exhibition (1994). Moryson recorded, ‘from my tender youth I had a grat desire to see forraine countries … to enable my understanding (which I though could not be done so well by contemplation as by experience)’; on his visit to Ireland, ‘rather as a Souldier than as a Traveler, as one abiding in Camps more than in Cities, as one lodging in Tents more than in Innes’; includes account of the submission of O’Neill at Mellifont, ‘kneeling on his knees’, and of his bitters tears after, ‘in such quantity as could not well be concealed, especially in him, upon whose face all men’s eyes were cast’ when he realised that the Queen was already dead and that he had been tricked. (McCarthy, p.17) [Further details as supra.] Note, Part III of Itinerary is a miscellany of travel advice and decriptions of various countries.]

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John McGurk, ‘The Dead, Sick and Wounded of the Nine Years War, 1594-1603’, in History Ireland (Winter 1995), pp.16-22, draws on Moryson for statistics and details: ‘And in generall among the dead bodies many were found to have spels, c[h]aracters, and hallowed medalls, which they woare as preservations against death, and most of them when they were stripped were seen to have scares [i.e., scars] of Venus’s warfare …’, in a passage on the looting of the dead at Kinsale, called ‘mischievous’ by McGurk (p.22).

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Ulster famine: Moryson witnessed the campaigns in Ulster and wrote of the multitudes of the dead ‘with their mouths all coloured green by eating nettles, docks and all things they could rend above ground.’ (Quoted by W. E. H. Lecky, in The History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 1892-96, Vol. I, p.9; cited in Robert Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1972, p.12.)

The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson [1617; first publ. in Sherratt & Hughes, eds., Shakespeare’s Europe (1903), and afterwards in Caesar Litton Falkiner, Illustrations of Irish History and Topography [...] (1904) - with additional material.

Chap. 2
To conclude, as I have taken the boldness plainly and truly to give some light of the doubtful state of Ireland about the time of the last rebellion, so methinks no Irish or English-Irish of these times should take offence at any things I have written if they be clear from the ill affections wherewith those times were polluted (I mean in general, since I have not concealed that some of them deserved well in those worst times). And for all other men I trust that in their love to truth … God is my witness that I envy not to the English-Irish any wealth, liberty, or prerogative they may justly challenge, nor yet to the mere Irish a gentle and moderate government … But as they were both in those times very disobedient (if not malicious) to the state of England, I have been bold to say that things so standing, England ought to use power where reason availeth not. Nothing is so proper as to rule by force whom force hath subjected. To keep the Irish in obedience by arms who were first conquered by arms, and to use the like bridle towards the English-Irish, who degenerating became partners in their rebellions…. love and fear … &c.’


Chap. 3
‘In this chapter I will speak of the mere Irish… . The lords, or rather chiefs of the country … prefix Ó or Mac before their names in token of greatness, being absolute tyrants over their people, themselves eating upon them and making them feed their kern, or footmen, and their horsemen…. The Irish are by nature very factious, all of a sept or name living together, and cleaving close one to another in [311] all quarrels and actions whatsoever, in which kind they willingly suffer great men to eat upon them, and take whatsover they have, proverbially saying, Defend me and spend me; but this defence must be in all causes, just or unjust, for they are not content to be protected from wrong, except they may be borne out to do wrong.
They are by nature extremely given to idleness … theft is not infamous but rather commendable … slovenly and sluttish in their houses and apparel … Irish harpers are excellent … pleasant tunes of Moresco dances [Moryson believes the people may be derived from Turkey for their headgear].

They are very clamorous, upon every small occasion raising a hobou (that is a doleful outcry), which they take from one another’s mouth till they put the whole town in a tumult. [312] … superstitious and given to witchcrafts [this passage not printed by Hughes and Sherratt] [314] bodies large for bigness and stature, because they are brought up in liberty and loose apparel … men … have little and ladylike hands and feel and the greatest part of the women are nasty with foul linen, and have great duggs, some so big as they give their children such over their shoulders … not straightlaced … not laced at all … fruitful in generation [315] … subtle temporiser … swordsmen hold it infamy to labour … We read that in the very primitive Church Ireland yielded many and learned men called monks, but far differing from those of the Roman Church at this day [316] no public schools or universities … not laborious in the study of sciences … Queen Elizabeth … founded TCD … the kingdom hath out of England been furnished with many learned and grave bishops … judges … inferior [i.e. junior] pleaders.
Touching the Irish language. It is a peculiar, not derived from any other radical tongue (that ever I could hear … &c) but as the land, as I have showed, hath been peopled by diverse nations besides the first inhabitants, so that the tongue received many new words from them, especially Spanish words from the people coming thence to inhabit the west parts. But all I have said hereof might well be spared, as if no such tongue were in the world I think it would never be missed either for pleasure or necessity. [317]

Ceremonies of state … barbarous … commonly women have little or no pain in child-bearing … holding it a reproach to nurse their own children … [Ibid., here 318] … no shame to be or beget a bastard [319] … the land after their law of tanistry (which they willingly observe rather than the English) is commonly possessed by the most active and powerful of the sept and kindred, bearing all one surname [319] … seldom eat fowl or fish though they have great plenty of both … gladly eat raw herbs, as [320] watercress and shamrocks, and most commonly eat flesh, many times raw … drink much usquebagh, which is the best aqua vitae in the world, and much sack, but seldom any claret … let their cows blood, eating the congealed blood with butter … The men hold it a shame to go abroad or walk with their wives, and much more to ride before them on horseback. They hold it a disgrace to ride upon a mare. [Further on hunting habits.]

Rep. in Caesar Litton Falkiner, Illustrations of Irish History and Topography, Mainly of the 17th Century (Longmans Green & Co. 1904, pp.304-05; pp.311-20.)

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Anglo-Irish? ‘The meere Irish disdayned to learne or speake the English tounge, yea the English Irish and the very Citizzens (excepting those of Dublin where the Lord Deputy resides) though they could speake English as well as wee, yet Commonly speake Irish among themselues, and were hardly induced by our familiar Conversation to speake English with vs, yea Common experience obserued, the Citizzens of Watterford and Corcke hauing wyues that could speak English as well as [17] wee, bitterly to chyde them when they speake English with vs.’ (Quoted in Alan Bliss, Spoken English in Ireland 1600-1740 [... &c.] [Irish Writings from the Age of Swift], Dublin: Cadenus Press 1979), pp.17-18; citing Charles Hughes, Shakespeare’s Europe: Unpublished Chapters of Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary, 1903)

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Touching Irish diet (from Itinerary, Bk. 3, Chap. 5) ...

Touching the Irish dyet, Some Lords and Knights, and Gentlemen of the English-Irish, and all the English there abiding, having competent meanes, use the Englishd dyet, but some more, some lesse cleanly, few or none curiously, and no doubt they have as great and for their part greater plenty then the English, of flesh, fowle, fish, and all things for food, if they will use like Art of Cookery. Alwaies I except the Fruits, Venison, and some dainties proper to England, and rare in Ireland. And we must conceive, that Venison and Fowle seeme to be more plentiful in Ireland, because they neither so generally affect dainty foode, or so diligently search it ast the English do. Many [196] of the English-Irish, have by little and little been infected with the Irish filthinesse, and that in the very cities, excepting Dublyn, and some of the better sort in Water ford, where the English continually lodging in their houses, they more retaine the English diet. The English-Irish after our manner serve to the table joynts of flesh cut after our fashion, with Geese, Pullets, Pigges and like rosted meats, but their ordinary food for the common sort is of Whitmeates, and they eate cakes of oates for bread, and drinke not English Beere made of Mault and Hops, but Ale. At Corck I have seene with these eyes, young maides starke naked grinding of Corne with certaine stones to make cakes thereof, and striking of into the tub of meale, such reliques thereof as stuck on their belly, thighes and more unseemely parts.

And for the cheese or butter commonly made by the English Irish, an English man would not touch it with his [III. iii.162, in 1617 Edn.] lippes, though hee were halfe starved; yet many English inhabitants make very good of both kindes. In Cities they have such bread as ours, but of a sharpe savour, and some mingled with Annisseeds, and baked like cakes, and that only in the houses of the better sort.

In Dublyn and in some other Cities, they have taverns, wherein Spanish and French Wines are sold, but more commonly the Merchants sell them by pintes and quartes in their own Cellars. The Irish Aquavitae, vulgarly called Usquebagh, is held the best in the World of that kind; which is made also in England, but nothing so good as as that which is brought out of Ireland. And the Usquebagh is preferred before our Aquavitae, because the mingling of Raysons, Fennell seede, and other things, mitigating the heate, and making the taste pleasant, makes it lesse inflame, and yet refresh the weake stomake with moderate heate, and a good relish. These Drinkes the English-Irish drink largely, and in many families (especially at feasts) both men and women use excesse therein. And since I have in part seene, and often heard from others experienceth, at some Gentlewomen were so [197] free in this excesse, as they would kneeling upon the knee, and otherwise garausse health after health with men; not to speake of the wives of Irish Lords, or to referre it to the due place, who often drinke till they be drunken, or at least till they voide urine in full assemblies o f men, I cannot (though unwilling) but note the Irish women more specially with this fault, which I have observed in no other part to be a woman’s vice, but onely in Bohemia: Yet so as accusing them, I meane not to excuse the men, and will also confesseth at I have seene Virgins, as well Gentlewomen as Citizens, commanded by their mothers to retyre, after they had in curtesie pledged one or two healths. [...]

Itinerary, Book III, Chap. V, in the Glasgow Edn., Vol. IV (1908), ppp.196-98.

Yea, the wilde Irish in time of greatest peace impute covetousness and base birth to him, that hath any Corne after Christmas, as if it were a point of Nobility to consume all within those Festivall dayes. They willingly eate the hearb Schamrock, being of a sharpe taste, which as they runne and are chased to an fro, they snatch like beasts out of the ditches.

Neither have they any Beere made of Malt and Hoppes, nor yet any Ale, no, not the chiefe Lords, except it be very rarely: but they drinke Milke like Nectar, warmed with a stone first cast into the fier, or else Beefe-broath mingled with milke: but when they come to any Market Towne, to sell a Cow or a Horse, they never returne home, till they have drunke the price in Spanish Wine (which they call the King of Spaines Daughter), or in Irish Usqueboagh, and till they have out-slept two or three daies drunkennesse. And not onely the common sort, but even the Lords and their wives, the more they want this drinke at home, the more they swallow it when they come to it, till they be as drunke as beggers. Many of these wilde Irish eate no flesh, but that which dyes of disease or otherwise of it selfe, neither can it scape them for stinking. They desire no broath, nor have any use of a spoone. They can neither seeth Artichokes, nor eate them when they are sodden. It is strange and ridiculous, but most true, that some of our carriage Horses falling into their hands, when they found Sope and Starch, carried for the use of our Laundresses, they thinking them to bee some dainty meates, did eate them greedily, and when they stuck in their teeth, cursed bitterly the gluttony of us English churles, for so they terme us. They feede most on Whitmeates, and esteeme for a great dainties ower curds, vulgarly called by them Bonaclabbe. And for this cause they watchfully keepe their Cowes, and fight for them as for religion and life; and when they are almost starved, yet they will not kill a Cow, except it bee old, [200] and yeeld no Milke. Yet will they upon hunger in time of warre open a vaine of the Cow, and drinke the bloud, but in no case kill or much weaken it. A man would thinke these men to bee Scythians, who let their Horses bloud under the eares, and for nourishment drinke their bloud, and indeed (as I have formerly said), some of the Irish are of the race of Scythians, comming into Spaine, and from thence into Ireland.

Ibid., pp.199-200.

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Slovenly Irish: ‘In Ireland the English, and the English-Irish are attired after the English manner, for the most part, yet not with such pride and inconstancy, perhaps for want of means: yet the English-Irish forgetting their own country, are somewhat infected with the Irish rudeness, and with them are delighted with simple colours, as red and yellow. Touching the meere or wild Irish, it may be said of them, which of old was spoken of the Germans, namely, that they wander slovenly of and naked, and lodge in the same house (if it may be called a house) with their beasts […] I say slovenly, because they seldom put off a shirt before it be worn […] Their wives living among the English are attired in sluttish gown.’

Note footnote: ‘My regard for truth, and my duty as a historian, oblige me to declare, that this slovenly custom so justly reprobated by Morryson, prevailed, at least partially, amongs the heads of some of principal Irish families, so low as the last reign (viz., George II).’ (Q source; p.61.)

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Cannibalism: ‘Sir Arthur Chichester, Sir Richard Moryson, and the other Commanders of the Forces sent against Brian Mac Art aforesaid, in their returne homeward, saw a most horrible spectacle of three children (whereof the eldest was not above ten yeeres old), all eating and knawing with their teeth the entrals of their dead mother, upon whose flesh they had fed twenty dayes past, and having eaten all from the feete upward to the bare bones, rosting it continually by a slow fire, were now come to the eating of her said entralls in like sort roasted, yet not divided from the body, being as yet raw…. Captaine Trevor & many honest Gentlemen lying in the Newry can witnes, that some old women of those parts, used to make a fier in the fields, & divers little children driving out the cattel in the cold mornings, and comming thither to warme them, were by them surprised, killed and eaten …. These and very many like lamentable effects followed their rebellion.’ (An Itinerary Containing His Ten Yeeres Travell …, 1617, Vol. III, pp.281-83; quoted in Andrew Hadfield, ‘Rethinking Early-Modern Colonialism: The Anomalous State of Ireland’, in Irish Studies Review, April 1999, p.15.)

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., Field Day Anthology of Irish Literature, Vol. I [biog. and bibl. as supra].

De Burca Books lists An History of Ireland from the year 1599 to 1603, with a short narration of the state of the Kingdom from the year 1169 …, 2 vols. (Dublin: Powell 1735).

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