Louis Cullen

LifeWorksCriticismCommentaryQuotationsReferencesNotes

Life
1932- [Louis Michael Cullen; occas. Louis M.; usu. L. M.]; b. New Ross; his paternal family were builders, his mother’s farmers at Poulrane, nr. Kilmore; lived some years nr. Castlepollard, an [Anglo-Irish] estate town; ed. CBS, and afterwards at UCG, under Sheila Kennedy; also Paris (Sorbonne) and the London School of Economics, where he wrote his PhD, “Anglo-Irish Trade 1600-1800” (1959; pub. 1968); first worked in Diplomatic Service; appt. Assoc. Lect., Modern History, TCD 1963-72;
 
inaugurated a revolution in several works reviewing national historiography from an economic standpoint; issued Life in Ireland (1968), a century-by-century economic survey; issued with The Formation of the Irish Economy (1969), a collection of essays by E. E. R. Green, Goldstrom, and others; wrote An Economic History of Ireland Since 1600 (1972); gave the TCD O’Donnell Lecture, 1985 [‘Catholics under the Penal Laws’], challenged Daniel Corkery’s view of Irish cultural nationality with ‘The Hidden Ireland: Reassesment of a Concept’, in Studia Hibernica (1969), later published in pamphlet form (1988).
 
appt. Prof. of Modern History, TCD, 1972- ; has worked with the Irish Manuscript Commission; wrote The Brandy Trade under the Ancien Régime: Regional Specialisation in the Charente (1998), arguing that regional specialisation attracted foreign negociants such as Martell and Hennessy; Visiting Research Scholar at the International Research Centre for Japanese Culture, Kyoto; wrote A History of Japan 1582-1941 (2003); lives in Blackrock, Co. Dublin. DIW FDA

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Works
Monographs
  • Anglo-Irish Trade 1600-1800 (Manchester UP; NY: Augustus M. Kelley 1968), viii, 252pp. [LSE PhD thesis, 1959]
  • Life in Ireland (London: Batsford; NY Putnam’s Sons 1968), and Do. [rev. edn.] (London: Batsford 1979), xiv, 178p.. ill. [facs., plans], and Do., as An saol in Éireann, trans. by Tomás Ó Laoi (Baile Atha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair 1976), xv, 210pp.;
  • The Smuggling Trade in Ireland in the 18th Century [PRIA, Vol. 67, 5, Sect. C] (Dublin UP [TCD] 1969), p[149]-75.
  • Six Generations of Life and Work in Ireland from 1790, edited for publication by Jack White (Cork: [RTÉ] Mercier Press 1970; 2nd edn. 1986), 120pp.; and Do., as Sé ghluín Érieannacha: Cúrsaí an tSaoil in Éirinn 1790-1970: bunaithe ar an sraithchlár [Six Generations] trans. by Livín Ó Murchú [Baile Átha Cliath]: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1981, 1970), 137pp.. ill. [1 facs., maps, ports.]
  • Merchants, Ships and Trade, 1660-1830 [Insights into Irish History Ser.] Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1971), [6], 66pp., ill. [24 cm];
  • with George Morrison, Townlife [Insights into Irish History] (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1973), 64pp., ill. [facs., plans]
  • An Economic History of Ireland Since 1600 (London: Batsford 1972), 208pp.; Do. (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1983), 292pp.; and Do. [2nd edn.] (London: Batsford 1987), 208pp.;
  • The Emergence of Modern Ireland 1600-1900 [Batsford Academic] (London: Batsford 1981, 1983), 292pp.;
  • Princes & Pirates: The Dublin Chamber of Commerce 1783-1983 (Dublin Chamber of Commerce 1983), 126pp., ill. [facs.], maps on lining papers, ports. [26 cm].
  • The Hidden Ireland: Reassesment of a Concept (Westmeath: Lilliput Press 1988), vii, 54pp. [critique of Daniel Corkery; orig. in Studia Hibernica, 1969].
  • Easons and Son: A History (Dublin: Eason & Son 1989), 426pp.
  • Tokugawa Economy & Society in Historical Perspective [Ireland-Japan papers, 4] (Tokyo: Institute of Comparative Economic Studies, Hosei University, 1991), q.pp.
  • An Introduction to Irish History: Lectures to Japanese Students [Ireland-Japan Papers, 12] (Tokyo: Institute of Comparative Economic Studies, Hosei University 1994), 60pp. [26 cm];
  • Smuggling and the Ayrshire Economic Boom of the 1760s and 1770s [Ayrshire Monographs, 14] (Ayrshire Archaeolog. and Natural History Soc. in assoc. with Kyle & Carrick District Libraries 1994), 55pp., maps;
    The Brandy Trade under the Ancien Régime: Regional Specialisation in the Charente (Cambridge UP 1998), xvii, 284pp., ill, maps [24 cm.]; and Do., as Le commerce des eaux-de-vie sous l’Ancien Régime: une spécialisation régionale Charentaise, trans. by Catherine Simon-Goulletquer & Alain Braastad-Delamain (Paris: Le Croît vif, 2002), 336pp., map.
  • The Irish Brandy Houses of Eighteenth-century France (Dublin: Lilliput Press 2000), xi, 244pp., col. ill. [24 cm.]
  • A History of Japan 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds (Cambridge UP 2003), xvii, 357pp., ill., maps;
  • Le choix de Cognac: l’établissement des ne´gociants irlandais en eau-de-vie au XVIIIe sie`cle, trans. by Catherine Simon-Goulletquer (2006).
 
Edited collections
  • ed., The Formation of the Irish Economy [Thomas Davis Lectures] (Cork: Mercier Press/RTE 1968, 1969, 1976, 1979), 127pp. [contents];
  • with T.C. Smout, Comparative Aspects of Scottish and Irish Economic and Social History, 1600-1900 (Edinburgh: Donald [1977]), viii, 252pp., ill., map;
  • with P. Butel, ed., Négoce et industrie en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles [Actes du Colloque franco-irlandais d’histoire, Bordeaux mai 1978] (Paris: Éditions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique 1980), 160pp., maps [texts var. in English or French].
  • with F. Furet, ed., Ireland and France 17th-20th Centuries: Towards a Comparative Study of Rural History / Irlande et France XVIIe-XXe siècles: pour une histoire rurale compareé [Proceedings of the First Franco-Irish Symposium on Social and Economic History, Dublin] (Paris: Editions de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 1980), 237pp.;
  • with P. Bergeron, ed., Culture et Pratiques Politiques en France et en Irlande XVIe-XVIIIe Siecle [Actes du colloque de Marseille, 28 Sept-2 Oct 1988] [incl. Whelan, Kevin, ‘Catholic Mobilisation 1750-1855’];
  • with P. Butel, ed., Cities and Merchants: French and Irish perspectives on urban development, 1500-1900 [Proceedings of the Fourth Franco-Irish Seminar of Social & Economic Historians] (Dublin: Dept. of Mod. History, TCD 1986), 259pp., maps.
  • with Louis Bergeron, ed. & intro. [pref.], Culture et pratiques politiques en France et en Irlande, 16e-18e siècle [Actes du colloque de Marseille, 28 sept.-2 oct. 1988] (Paris: Centre de recherches historiques 1990), 258pp.
 
Articles & chapters
  • ‘The Cultural Basis of Modern Irish Nationalism’, in The Roots of Nationalism: Studies in Northern Europe, ed. Rosalind Mitchison (Edinburgh: Donald 1980), vii, 175pp.
  • ‘Catholics under the Penal Laws’ [O’Donnell Lecture, TCD, 1985], in Eighteenth Century Ireland, Vol. I (Dublin 1986), pp.23-36 [available at JSTOR online - see extract infra.];
  • ‘Printed Popular Literature in Irish 1750-1850: Presence and Absence’, in The Origins of Literacy in Ireland: Language Change and Educational Development 1700-1920, ed. Mary Daly & David Dickson (TCD/UCD 1990), pp.15-44;
  • ‘Burke, Ireland and Revolution’, Eighteenth-century Life, 16 [n.s.] (1 Feb. 1992), pp.21-42; and Do. [8th David Nichol Smith Memorial Seminar; Studies in the Eighteenth Century, 8 (1992) [off-print].
  • ‘“A revolution in the trade”: Wine Distribution and the Development of the Infrastructure of the Atlantic Market Economy, 1703-1807’, in The Early Modern Atlantic Economy, ed. John J. McCusker & Kenneth Morgan (Cambridge UP 2000), q.pp.
  • Foreword to Retrospections of Dorothea Herbert 1770-1806 [New edn.] (Dublin: TownHouse 2004), xxix, 436pp.
  • ‘The Boyds in Bordeaux’, in A Global “Huguenot” Merchant Network: The Boyd Dynasty [A Symposium] [Bexley Heritage Trust; Huguenot Society of GB & Ireland; Huguenot Society of S. Carolina] (London: Bexley Heritage Trust 2009), q.pp.
 
Query: ‘History, Economic crises, and Revolution: Understanding Eighteenth-century France’, in The Economic History Review, 46 (q.d.), p.635-57 [offprint in Bristol UL]; q.tit.], in St Mary & St Michael Parish Church, New Ross 1902-2002 : a centenary history (Dublin: A. & A. Farmar 2001), 189pp., ill.

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Bibliographical details
The Formation of the Irish Economy, ed. L. M. Cullen [Thomas Davis Lectures] (Cork: Mercier Press/RTE 1969), 127pp. CONTENTS: Cullen, The Irish Economy in the 18th Century; W. H. Crawford., The Rise of the Linen Industry; M[aureen] Wall, Catholics in Economic Life; J. Lee, Capital in the Irish Economy; M. Drake, Population Growth and the Irish Economy; J. Lee, The Railways in the Irish Economy; E. R. R. Green, Industrial Decline in the 19th Century; by J. M. Goldstrom, The Industrialisation of the North-East; L. M. Cullen, Irish Economic History: Fact and Myth [extract].

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Criticism
See also Kevin Whelan, ‘Watching the Detective’ [interview] , in History Ireland, 2.2 (Summer 1994), pp.10-12; David Dickson & Cormac Ó Gráda, eds., Refiguring Ireland: Essays in Honour of L. M. Cullen (Dublin: Lilliput Press 2003), 392pp. [see contents].

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Bibliographical details
David Dickson
& Cormac Ó Gráda, eds., Refiguring Ireland: Essays in Honour of L. M. Cullen (Dublin: Lilliput Press 2003), 392pp., ill. [2pp. of pls., maps’; 24 cm]. CONTENTS: T.C.Smout [St. Andrews], ‘Energy rich, energy poor: Scotland, Ireland and Iceland’; T. M. Devine [Aberdeen], ‘Irish and Scottish development revisited’; L.A. Clarkson [QUB], Did Ireland starve?’; Bruce M. S. Campbell [QUB], ‘Economic progress in the canal age’; S.J. Connolly [QUB], ‘Tupac Amaru and Captain Right: a comparative perspective on eighteenth-century Ireland’; James Kelly [St Patrick’s College], Transportation from Ireland to North America, 1703-1789’; J-P. Poussou [Sorbonne], ‘Louis Cullen: De l’histoire des communautés marchandes irlandaises en France, celle des eaux-de-vie et de l’histoire économique de la France au xviiie [18th] siècle’; Thomas M. Truxes [Trinity College, Conn.], ‘New York City’s Irish merchants and trade with the enemy during the Seven Years War, C. J. Woods [Dictionary of Irish Biography], ‘The social composition of the Catholic Convention, 1792-1793’; Ann C. Kavanaugh [Concordia College, Minn.], ‘Henrietta Battier: poet and radical, 1751-1813’; A. P. W. Malcomson [PRONI], ‘A house divided: The Loftus family, earls and marquesses of Ely, c. 1600-c. 1900’; Mair ad Dunlevy [National Museum of Ireland] and and Cormac Ó Gráda [UCD], ‘A bowling match at Castlemary, County Cork’; David Fitzpatrick [TCD], ‘Harry Boland’s American Revolution, 1919-1921’; Liam Kennedy [QUB], ‘The cost of living in Ireland, 1698-1998’; Peter M. Solar [Vrije Universiteit Brussel], ‘Irish trade in the nineteenth century’; Andy Bielenberg [NUI Cork], ‘The Irish distilling industry under the Union’; Cormac Ó Gráda [UCD], ‘Moral hazard and quasi-central banking: Should the Munster Bank have been saved? Kevin H. O Rourke [TCD], ‘Ireland and the bigger picture’; M. E. Daly [UCD], ‘The modernization of rural Ireland, c. 1920-c. 1960’; Kieran A. Kennedy [ESRI, Dublin], ‘The roots of contemporary Irish economic development’; “Bibliography of leaves M. Cullen”, pp.[386]-92.

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Quotations
Catholics under the Penal Laws’, in Eighteenth-Century Ireland / Iris an dá chultúr, Vol. 1 (1986): ‘The penal laws have loomed large in historiography, their adverse results detailed graphically in the pages of Lecky and in many other accounts. Yet they are little studied either as a corpus of legislation or in their impact. As a body of laws, their motivation and results alike are more complex than often suggested, as this paper attempts to show. In a wider political framework, the tradition of service outside Ireland had a larger career orientation than usually allowed for, an this explains why loyalities could be readily transferred from Europe to the British empire. In a still broader perspective, catholic triumphalism, when Emancipation was finally wrung from the British in 1829, acquired, understandably enough, a vested interest in exaggerating the magnitude of the catholic achievement of survival and the background of legal and political discrimination.’ (p.36 [end].) [See further under Maureen Wall, infra.]

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Irish Economic History: Fact and Myth’, in The Formation of the Irish Economy (1969): ‘Irish economic development is more independent of non-economic factors than has been generally believed. Thus, the image of Grattan’s parliament might burn brightly in the imagination of generations of nationalists, and of earlier historians of Ireland, but its economic achievements were meagre. Or the Union might have been a major legislative measure but its economic impact was minor by comparison with the other economic processes of the early nineteenth century. The key fact was the onset of modern industrialisation in some favoured regions of the British Isles. This resulted in massive price reductions through the application of new technologies and new forms of business organisation. The decline of handicraft production in the face of this competition was inevitable: this happened in rural England, and rural Europe more generally, not just in Ireland. The protectionism of Grattan’s parliament would have been powerless to avert this fate.’ (?p.9.) Note Cullen goes on to argue that in any case there had been relatively little industrial decline in Ireland, outside of textiles, during the first half of the nineteenth century - ‘a thesis still being explored by historians’, according to the lost source of the above.’)

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